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virginity is religious and moral values (Marsiglio, Scanzoni and Broad, 2000; Rostosky et al., 2004). Using GSS data from 1972 to 1998, Treas (2002) found that more frequent attendance at religious services predicts the likelihood of condemning homosexual behaviors. Interestingly, Treas did find that all but those attending services more than once a week showed declines in their disapproval over those three decades, and that those attending more than weekly did not increase in disapproval. There have been few studies examining the relationship between religiosity and sexual practices other than intercourse, the interactions between religiosity and
romantic involvement in sexual behavior, and the effects of religiosity on racial minorities and men (Rostosky et al., 2004).
Media and Sexuality
The potential for media to affect socialization is well supported by many theoretical frameworks. Social learning theory is premised on the idea that people learn appropriate behavior based on whether behavior is rewarded or punished, and recognizes the importance of observational learning. Scripting theory implies that “young people can easily learn scripts through watching television that establish when it is appropriate to have sex with someone or what outcomes one can expect from sexual encounters” (Farrar et al., 2003: 9). Media influence people via cultivation, the phenomenon whereby people come to believe that media depictions are accurate representations of mainstream culture (Gerbner, et al., 2002), and agenda setting, which refers to the ability of media to shape what people come to see as important based on what they choose to depict and how they depict it. Such frameworks are especially applicable to movies and television, which are the most similar to “real” human interaction. However, text, images, and lyrics are also ways of depicting human interaction, and can thus have similar effects.