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DeLamater & HasdayPage 31

Council (2000) found a 300 percent increase in the number and explicitness of sexual portrayals during prime time between 1989 and 1999. Additionally, in terms of sexual behavior specifically (as opposed to all sexual content), Farrar and colleagues (2003) found statistically significant increases in both percentage of programs including sexual behavior and the average number of scenes per hour containing sexual behavior between 1997 and 2001. They also found that only 9% of shows with sexual content incorporated any messages of risk or responsibility. Twelve percent of all instances of sexual intercourse during prime time happen between characters who have just met, which is one of the riskier sexual practices.  Other studies have confirmed the significant lack of messages regarding the more dangerous aspects of sex like unwanted pregnancy and STD transmission (Hyde and DeLamater, 2006).

Analyses of television content outside prime time hours have included studies of soap operas, cable movie networks, and music videos. Again, the messages are consistent. Greenberg and Busselle (1996) found that the most frequent sexual activity depicted in soap operas was sex between unmarried people, that soap operas contained an average of 6.6 sexual interludes per episode (in 1994), and that sexual safety was mentioned infrequently.  Fisher et al. (2004) found that cable movie networks have the highest proportion of programs with sexual content, and that the most frequent portrayals are unmarried heterosexual intercourse. They also found that cable movie network programs often contained intercourse occurring in the context of alcohol and drug use. Summarizing two decades of research on sex in music videos, Andsager and Roe (2003) found that sexual innuendo was very common (though explicit sex was not), that women were presented in revealing clothing or positions of implied nudity five to seven times more frequently than men, that women tended to be portrayed as subordinate sexual objects in traditionally female roles that were often overtly sexual (including prostitutes and erotic

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