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performers), and that even when women were portrayed as powerful and independent (which was rare) they were still generally highly sexualized.
Many of the same trends seen in television have been found in analyses of other media. Greenberg and Busselle (1996) found that R-rated movies contain an average of 17.5 depictions of sexual behavior per hour, and that these depictions are significantly more explicit than sex during prime time. Analyses performed by Soley and Kurzbard (1986) and Reichert (2002) show trends of increasing proportions of advertisements with sexual content, increasing nudity and partial nudity in sexual content (especially for women), and increasing explicitness in depictions of sexual behavior in advertisements across multiple mediums. Last but certainly not least, magazines are responsible for a great deal of exposure to sexual content. One central theme of women’s magazines specifically is appearance, as it relates to the acquisition of sexual partners (Hyde and DeLamater, 2006). A study of two globally top-selling women’s magazines found that sex is the primary content (McCleneghan, 2003). A closer look at Cosmopolitan showed that sex is portrayed as the source of female power in relationships as well as the workplace (Machin & Thornborrow, 2003). And, in one of the few sociological studies addressing effects, Thomsen et al. (2002) found correlations between adolescent females’ reading of women’s beauty and fashion magazines and their practice of certain pathological dieting techniques. In the recent decades, comparable men’s lifestyle magazines have emerged, garnering a readership rivaling that of their female counterparts (Jackson et al., 1999). Analyses of men’s lifestyle magazines have showed an overall trend of depicting a narrow male sexuality oriented toward sexual variety (Taylor, 2005).