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  • the use of water within households (and whether for productive and reproductive needs);

  • gender-specific water/ sanitation priorities (public surveys as well as within households);

  • relationships between gender and modes of transportation in water collecting;

  • gender differences in access to safe and clean water, measured by indicators of the appropriateness of water/ sanitation supplies;

  • women’s and men’s views of the safety of the path/ road/ access to water supplies or sanitation facilities;

  • documentation of violence against women/ girls in the context of water collecting or using sanitary facilities;

  • information on the disposal of fecal wastes, at the household level and in public sectors, and the gendered workforce responsible for disposal of wastes, especially in urban areas.

! Time: Data are needed on access to water, by distance, and by the time needed to collect water to meet daily basic needs; “time needed” includes waiting time. The time spent on collecting water is an essential equity issue: women are still over-burdened; time spent in these activities diminishes time available for other activities, and takes away from women’s and girls capacity to participate in productive labor and in civic opportunities including school attendance.


Decision making and policy: There is a dearth of information on decision-making at local through national levels on projects and issues related to water/ sanitation. Any number of measures of the participation of women in water/ sanitation sectors, including international policy formulation, could be deployed, including:

  • the roles of women in communities or organisations in safeguarding access to water and sanitation supplies

  • whether women’s participation in formal settings reaches the critical mass threshold of 30%

  • the participation of women in the advance planning stages of projects, not just at the implementation stage

  • the extent to which women’s participation is volunteer labour, or, if compensated, whether on equal terms with men

  • information on water and sanitation decision-making within households; even in female headed households, the primary decision-makers might not be the women, but the owners of the house (if different)

! Costs and benefits: Information is lacking on the economic benefit to men and women from improved access to water, or the differential costs to men and women of lack of access. Similarly, little attention is directed to understanding the gendered dimensions of costs and benefits from privatization of water and sanitation.

! Private income and expenditures: Are there differences between female and male- headed households in expenditures on water and sanitation?


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