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1994. The line was electrified during 1998-2000, and a fourth track was built during 2005-2007. Train speeds were lifted in stages from 1991. Today, one pair of tracks is dedicated for passenger service; the maximum permitted speed is 200 km/h (124 mph). The second pair of tracks is used by passenger and freight trains; the maximum permitted speed is 160 km/h (99 mph). The line was reor- ganized in stages from 1984 and became China’s first joint-stock railway company in 1996.

San-yō Shinkansen (山陽新幹線): This is the western segment of the Tōkyō – Fukuoka HSR

line, and extends between Ōsaka (Shin-Ōsaka Station) and Fukuoka (Hakata Station). It was opened in two stages during 1972-1975.

TGV-Paris-Lyon-Marseille: Statistics include all passengers carried on the dedicated HSR lines LGV Sud-Est, LGV Rhône-Alpes and LGV Méditerranée.

Tōhoku Shinkansen (東北新幹線): This line extends northward from Tōkyō to Hachinohe. It

was opened in four stages during 1982-2002. Opening of the Hachinohe – Aomori (Shin-Aomori Station) segment, 81.8 km / 50.7 mi, is planned for December 2010. Passenger traffic statistics are inclusive of passengers carried aboard Akita Shinkansen and Yamagata Shinkansen trains while working on the Tōhoku Shinkansen.

KTX - Seoul-Busan refers to Seoul – Busan HSR services. For additional information, see KTX- All.

TGV Atlantique: Statistics include all passengers carried on the dedicated HSR line LGV Atlan- tique. The authors have addressed uncertainty, arising from apparent inconsistencies in source documents, by rounding to a single significant digit.

TGV Nord: Statistics include all passengers carried on the dedicated HSR line LGV Nord-Europe, including those carried aboard Eurostar and Thalys International trains. The authors have ad- dressed uncertainty, arising from apparent inconsistencies in source documents, by rounding to a single significant digit.

Jōetsu Shinkansen (上越新幹線): This line diverges from the Tōhoku Shinkansen at Ōmiya, and extends to Niigata. It was opened on November 15, 1982.

Jīngjīn Intercity Railway (京津城际铁, Jīngjīn chéngjì tiĕ): This line extends between Bei-

jing and Tianjin, and was opened on August 1, 2008 (京津, Jīngjīn, is an abbreviation meaning “Běijīng-Tiānjīn”). Passenger traffic statistics pertain to the first full year of operation.

KTX-all: The first phase of the KTX (“Korea Train eXpress”) system was opened on April 1, 2004. The project may be described in brief as:

1.) electrification of the existing Gyeongbu Line, Seoul – Yongsan – Siheung junction – Dae- jeon – Daegu (Dongdaegu Station) – Busan, 441.5 km / 274.5 mi,

2.) electrification of the existing Honam Line, Daejeon – Mokpo, 252.5 km / 156.5 mi, with a branch to Gwangju 13.7 km / 8.5 mi,

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