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Licensing’s Proximate Effects: The Allies had no uniform, German-wide licensing policy and so the licensing varied across the British, French and US occupation zones. The licensing practices ranged from giving parties a license for an entire zone, a single Land within a zone, or for a few electoral districts within a particular Land. Parties also were denied  licenses or even banned outright. Table 3 summarizes these various licensing practices by showing the year in which a party received a license (columns) and how its license varied across the three zones (rows).

Table 3: Party Licensing by Allied Zone

1945

1946

1947

1948

1949

A) Licenses for an entire zone

US Zone

CDU/CSU, SPD, KPD, FDP

BP

UK Zone

Zentrum

NLP/DP2

French Zone

B) Licenses for a single Land

US Zone

WAV

BHE4

UK Zone

NLP/DP2

SSV4, RVP; RSVP

French Zone

Denied to all parties

C) Licenses for select districts (Kreis), no licenses or bans

US Zone

BHKP 3†

BHE; BP;

NDP1;

BHE4, NDP1

UK Zone

BHE; DKP-DRP.

BHE4

French Zone

No district level licenses granted

DP

Legend: : Banned parties; Italics: parties that won seats in the August 1949 Federal election.

1 Founded in 1945 by Heinrich Leuchtgens. Received only licences for some Kreise in Hessen. No license for 1946 Länder election and 1949 federal election. Formed in 1949 and electoral alliance in Hessen with FDP which led to election of Leuchtgens. (Rogers 1995, 53-56). 2 Given license for Niedersachsen but licenses denied for other northern Länder until 1949. (Rogers 1995, 67-68).  3Banned in October 1945. (Rogers 1995, 63) 4After 1947, the BHE’s precursor organizations were permitted to run independent candidates US Zone Länder elections, as long as they did not labeled themselves as members of such organizations. Did not receive license for 1949 federal election. (Rogers 1995, 109); 5 SSV received license only for northern districts in Schleswig-Holstein in which sizeable Danish population lived (Rogers 1995, 130)

Party acronyms: BHE: Block der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechteten (League of Expellees and Dispossessed); BHKP: Bayerische Heimats- und Königspartei (Bavarian Homeland and Royalist Party); DKP-DRP: Deutsche Konservative Partei-Deutsche Rechtspartei (German Conservative Party/German Right Party); BP: Bayerische Partei (Bavarian Party); NDP: Nationaldemokratische Partei (National Democratic Party); NSLP/DP: Niedersächsische Landespartei/Deutsche Partei (after 1947) (Lower Saxon State Party/German Party); RSFP: Radikal-Soziale Freiheitspartei (Radical-Social Freedom Party); RVP: Rheinische Volkspartei (Rhenish People’s Party); SSV: Südschleswigscher Verein (South Schleswig Association); WAV: Wirtschaftlich Aufbau-Vereinigung (Economic Reconstruction Party);

Sources: (Rogers 1995; http://www.lexikon-definition.de)

Party Switching3/12/2007p.

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