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Water Lecture 3 A. Disinfection B. Water Safety Plans - page 26 / 47

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Monochloramine - History and Background

First used in Ottawa, Canada and Denver, Co. (1917)

Became popular to maintain a more stable chlorine residual and to control taste and odor  problems and bacterial re-growth in distribution system in 1930’s

Decreased usage due to ammonia shortage during World War II

Increased interest in monochloramine:

alternative disinfectant to free chlorine due to low THM potentials

more stable disinfectant residual; persists in distribution system

secondary disinfectant to ozone and chlorine dioxide disinfection to provide long-lasting residuals

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