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Water Lecture 3 A. Disinfection B. Water Safety Plans - page 27 / 47

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Monochloramine:  Chemistry and Generation)

Monochloramine formation:

HOCl + NH3 <=> NH2Cl + H2O

Stable at pH 7 - 9,  moderate oxidation potential

Generation

pre-formed monochloramine:

mix hypochlorite and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) solution at Cl2 : N ratio at  4:1 by weight, 10:1 on a molar ratio at pH 7-9

dynamic or forming monochloramination:

initial free chlorine residual, folloowed by ammonia addition to produce monochloramine

greater initial disinfection efficacy due to free chlorine

Dosed at several mg/L

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