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Water Lecture 3 A. Disinfection B. Water Safety Plans - page 30 / 47

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Chlorine Dioxide

First used in Niagara Fall, NY in 1944 to control phenolic tastes and algae problems

Used in 600 WTP (84 in the US) in 1970’s as primary disinfectant and for taste and odor control

Very soluble in water; generated as a gas or a liquid on-site, usually by reaction of Cl2 gas with NaClO2 :

2 NaClO2 + Cl2 2 ClO2 + 2 NaCl

Usage became limited after discovery of it’s toxicity in 1970’s & 1980’s

thyroid, neurological disorders and anemia in experimental animals by chlorate

Recommended maximum combined concentration of chlorine dioxide and it’s by-products < 0.5 mg/L (by US EPA in 1990’s)

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