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Water Lecture 3 A. Disinfection B. Water Safety Plans - page 5 / 47

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Summary Properties of Chemical Disinfectants

Free chlorine: HOCl (hypochlorous) acid and OCl- (hypochlorite ion)

HOCl at low and pH OCl- at highpH; HOCl more potent germicide than OCl-

strong oxidant; relatively stable in water (provides a disinfectant residual)

Chloramines:  mostly NH2Cl:  weak oxidant; provides a stable residual

Ozone, O3: strong oxidant; provides no residual (too volatile, reactive)

Chlorine dioxide, ClO2,: strong oxidant; unstable (dissolved gas)

Concerns due to health risks of chemical disinfectants and their byproducts (DBPs), especially free chlorine and its DBPs

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