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Dr.-Ing. Rolf Berghoff, Dr.-Ing. J. G. Kim / ERT-Consulting - page 2 / 9

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[Table 1] Recycling rate of Pflicht an Dismantling and shredding operation

Recycling Criteria

Up to the end of 2005

Re-use & Recycling **

Annual recycling rate according to ELV-regulation (weight %)

70%

Reyclingprocesses Re-use + material recycling Energetic recycling *

70%

Deadline after the regulation

10. 01. 2006

01. 01. 2015

85%

95%

80%

85%

5%

10%

85%

95%

Distribution of recycling rates (+)

Dismantling process Shredding process

70%

70%

70%

(+) 10%

(+) 10%

(+) 5%

(+) 15%

85%

95%

  • *

    It can also with the raw material recycling are accomplished, if it by energetic recycling is not accomplished

** Re-use of spare parts + material recycling of ferrous(Fe) and non-ferrous(NF)-Metals

[ERT]

(2) Ordinance on the Avoidance and Recovery of Packaging Wastes

Packaging wastes have to be taken back from the seller or distributor and it must recycled in material way. The followings contingents of material-recycling had to be fulfilled:

glass

75 %

sheet metal

70 %

aluminium

60 %

paper, cardboard

70 %

composite material

60 %.

These values represent high and stringent contingents of material-recycling. In many cases they reach the limits of what is reasonable in regard to economy and ecology. The way out of this problem can be a raw material-recycling by a thermal process.

2. Thermal Processes for Recycling Wastes can be recycled by some thermal processes. These processes are:

Incineration

Pyrolysis

Gasification

only energetic-recycling possible, energetic- or raw material-recycling possible, energetic- or raw material-recycling possible.

Another possibility, which had to be mentioned, is the use of pre-treated wastes in blast furnaces. Because the content of carbon in the waste have the effect of chemical reduction this kind of recycling is valid as a raw material-recycling. Now I want to describe two processes in Germany, which have significance in the treatment of fractions of domestic waste and industrial and hazardous wastes:

  • ConTherm-Pyrolysis as a pre-treatment of low-contaminated wastes (with high caloric value)

for the co-incineration in coal fired power plants

  • SVZ-Gasification as raw material-recycling of wastes.

Description of the Processes (1) Pyrolysis:

At pyrolysis a degasification of the organic components takes place by indirect heating in oxygen-free atmosphere. The products of the process are: pyrolysis-gas (contains also a mix of oil and tar) and solid residues (coke, metals, and minerals)

  • -

    2-

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