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12. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF MOLTEN SALTS163

12.1 CeF3 Solubility in Molten Mixtures of LiF, BeF2, and ThF4163

12.2 Correlation of CeF3 Solubility with Solvent Composition164

12.3 Zone Melting of Fluoride Salts166

12.3.1 Phase Behavior167

12.3.2 Zone Melting168

12.3.3 Cyclic Slow Cooling168

12.3.4 Cerium168

12.4 Behavior of CeF3 in the Fractional Crystallization of ThF4 from LiF-BeF2 -ThF4 Melts168

12.5 Properties of the Alkali Fluoroborates169

12.5.1 Phase Relations in Fluoroborate Systems169

12.5.2 The System Na-KF-BF3170

12.5.3 The System KF-KBF4170

12.5.4 The System NaBF4-KBF4171

12.5.5 The System NaF-NaBF4171

12.6 Limits of Miscibility in Molten Salt Systems: KBF4-LiF, Li2BeF4-KI, and Li2BeF4-KBF4171

12.6.1 The System KBF4-LiF171

12.6.2 The System Li2BeF4-KI172

12.6.3 The System Li2BeF4- KBF4172

12.7 Solubility of Thorium Metal in Molten Lithium Fluoride-Thorium Fluoride Mixtures172

12.8 The Crystal Structure of KBF4173

12.9 Densities of Molten Salts174

12.10 Spectroscopy of Fluoride Media175

12.10.1 The Diamond-Windowed Cell175

12.10.2 Salt Purification for Fluoride Spectroscopy175

12.11 The Distribution of U4+ Between Molten LiF-BeF2 ThF4-UF4

and a (U-Th)O2 Solid Solution176

12.12 An Ni-NiO-BeO Electrode as a Reference Electrode in Molten Fluorides178

12.13 Emf Measurements with Concentration Cells with Transference in Molten

Mixtures of LiF and BeF2180

12.14 Electrical Conductance of Molten KNO3182

12.15 Electrical Conductance of Molten Beryllium Fluoride184

13. CHEMISTRY OF MOLTEN-SALT REACTOR FUEL REPROCESSING TECHNOLOGY187

13.1 Simultaneous Extraction of Zirconium and Uranium and of Zirconium and Protactinium187

13.2 Protactinium Studies in the High Alpha Molten-Salt Laboratory188

13.3 Further Studies of the Reductive Extraction of Protactinium from Single-Fluid

MSBR Fuel Salt by Thorium in Molten Bismuth 189

13.4 Reductive Extraction of Rare Earths from Molten Mixtures of LiF, BeF2, and

ThF4 into Bismuth191

13.5 Metal Phases Other than Bismuth for Rare-Earth Extraction192

13.6 Separation of Cerium from Thorium in Bismuth by Cold Zone Deposition of

Thorium Bismuthide193

13.7 Extraction of Thorium by Electrolytic Reduction into Flowing Liquid Lead from

Molten Mixtures of LiF, BeF2, ThF4, and Rare-Earth Fluorides195

14. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS

FOR MOLTEN-SALT REACTORS197

14.1 Determination of Oxide in MSRE Fuel197

14.2 Determination of the Oxidation State of Constituents of MSRE Fuel197

14.2.1 Determination of Total Reducing Power of MSR Salts197

14.2.2 Determination of U(III) in Radioactive MSRE Fuel by a Hydrogen

Reduction Method199

14.2.3 Voltammetric Determination of U(IV)/U(III) Ratios in MSRE Fuel200

14.3 Emf, Voltammetric, and Spectrophotometric Measurements on the

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