Detection of Stressed, Injured and Viable-But-Nonculturable (VBNC) Bacteria
Waterborne bacterial pathogens and indicators are often physiologically altered/stressed and not efficiently cultured using standard selective and differential media
Heavy metals, disinfectants, pH extremes, other environmental stressors
Causes considerable underestimation of the concentrations of these bacteria in water and therefore, underestimation of their risks to human health
Stressed, injured and VBNC bacteria may still be fully infectious for humans and other animal hosts
Repair and resuscitation methods improve the detection of viable and potentially cultural bacteria, but, these methods are rarely used to detect pathogens in drinking water.