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Review: What type of microscopy is this? - page 26 / 42

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Assay Methods for Viruses

Electron Microscopy (EM) and Immune EM

Insensitive (>1,000,000 particles/ml)

OK for clinical but not environmental virology

Animal Infectivity

Slow, cumbersome, expensive, ethical considerations

Culture or infectivity

Now widely used in environmental virology

Cytopathogenic effects

Growth, but no cytopathogenic effects

detect viral antigens or nucleic acids

Immunoassays

insensitive for direct detection

Amplify viruses in cell cultures

Nucleic acid assays

insensitive for direct detection by hybridization

Amplify in cell culture or in vitro (PCR or RT-PCR)

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