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power; and the European Union.

It is obvious that the heavy strikes the European Constitution has just suffered from French and Dutch citizenship call for the use of that motto saying: “We are at war. We have to think.” Of course it is not an armed conflict, but the fear that for the past two weeks has shaken the fields of Europe really deserve to be given some thinking.

The fear of Turkey possibly joining in unfortunately mobilized more than any other argument taken from the constitutional text in debate. Xenophobia was one of the main bases for arguing against the European Constitutional Treaty.

It is not easy nor logical or evident to recognize that one of the irreversible and perhaps (allow me to use some poetry) most gorgeous effects of globalization is the mixture of cultures, nations and races. Europe, the cradle of civilization, must not be more than an example of integration. It will not be easy. However, considering the European Constitution dead is nothing more than mere newspaper headlines. Nothing more. In order to be reasonable, one must take some time off to reflect. I am sure that some solutions will come out. For now, it is democratic to go on with the ratification process of the different states. Interrupting it now would be a really serious precedent, an almost-Orwellian fact. “All European States are equal, but some are more equal than others.”

2 - SUMMARY & TEXTUAL EXERCISES (Total: 25 marks)


Read the following text, adapted from a report by Richard Gott, in The Guardian (Saturday, 11th June, 2005) and complete the exercises at the end of it. (10 marks)


Summarise the text, in your own words, in up to 200 words. (15 marks)

A seismic upheaval among Latin America’s Indians The crisis in Bolivia has put the continent's balance of power in question

When the Spanish conquistadors arrived on the immense plains of the westerly part of Bolivia, they paused at a settlement not far from the rim of a great canyon. At 12,000ft they found it too cold, and they made their permanent base in the relative shelter of the slopes below and founded the city of La Paz.

The village of El Alto on the high plateau, which 30 years ago was home only to the capital’s international airport, has now become a huge metropolis of nearly a million Indians, driven there over the past 20 years by the irresistible force of neo-liberal economics. The prevailing economic system, devised by US economists in the 1980s, succeeded in destroying the country’s agricultural system and its embryonic industries, and closing down the state-owned tin mines – once the source of the wealth of Spain. This predictable disaster brought hundreds of thousands of workless but highly politicised families to live at the gates of the capital city, from where they have been able to hold it to ________ at will. Others migrated to the lower regions of the country, to the Chapare, to grow the profitable crop of coca leaf, the base of cocaine.

The demands of the Indians have been uncompromisingly radical. They make no mention of work or food, education or health. They have only two specific requests: a new constitution that would recognise the part that they should play in the government of the country (in which they form more than 60% of the population of 8 million), and the return to the hands of the state of the country’s reserves of oil and gas.

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