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defence of the official stand. The leader whips up the people to a frenzy of chauvinism and defends his intransigence as obedience to the people's will.

The last option is to practise deception.

(Adapted from A.G. Noorani's "Of diplomacy and democracy." Frontline, v. 18 - Issue 23, Nov. 10 - 23, 2001.)


Read the following text on Leonardo da Vinci and, in the light of it and any of the ideas broached in the texts in Sections 1 & 2 above, discuss the uses of art and technology and their relation to ethics in the current diplomatic scenario.

Ever the perfectionist, Leonardo turned to science in the quest to improve his artwork. His study of nature and anatomy emerged in his stunningly realistic paintings, and his dissections of the human body paved the way for remarkably accurate figures. He was the first artist to study the physical proportions of men, women and children and to use these studies to determine the “ideal” human figure. Unlike many of his contemporaries — Michelangelo for example — he didn't get carried away and paint ludicrously muscular bodies, which he referred to as “bags of nuts.”

All in all, Leonardo believed that the artist must know not just the rules of perspective, but all the laws of nature. The eye, he believed, was the perfect instrument for learning these laws, and the artist the perfect person to illustrate them.

Leonardo the scientist bridged the gap between the shockingly unscientific medieval methods and our own trusty modern approach. His experiments in anatomy and the study of fluids, for example, absolutely blew away the accomplishments of his predecessors. Beginning with his first stay in Milan and gathering pace around 1505, Leonardo became more and more wrapped up in his scientific investigations. The sheer range of topics that came under his inquiry is staggering: anatomy, zoology, botany, geology, optics, aerodynamics and hydrodynamics, among others.

As his curiosity took him in ever wilder directions, Leonardo always used this method of scientific inquiry: close observation, repeated testing of the observation, precise illustration of the subject, object or phenomenon with brief explanatory notes. The result was volumes of remarkable notes on an amazing variety of topics, from the nature of the sun, moon and stars to the formation of fossils and, perhaps most notably, the mysteries of flight.

Artists have always found it difficult to make a living off their art. And even a master like Leonardo was forced to sell out in order to support himself. So he adapted his drawing skills to the more lucrative fields of architecture, military engineering, canal building and weapons design. Although a peacenik at heart, Leonardo landed a job working for the Duke of Milan by calling himself a military engineer and outlining some of his sinister ideas for weapons and fortifications. Like many art school types in search of a salary, he only briefly mentioned to the Duke that he could paint as well.

Lucky for Leonardo, he was actually really talented as an engineer. Good illustrators were a dime a dozen in Renaissance Italy, but Leonardo had the brains and the diligence to break new ground, usually leaving his contemporaries in the dust. Like many crackpot geniuses, Leonardo wanted to create “new machines” for a “new world.”

(Adapted from texts at <http://www.mos.org/leonardo>)


Taking into account the texts comprising this exam, read the following excerpt from Kenan

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