necessary to achieve the state or regional goal."39 The Council on Environmental Quality's40 chairman, Russell Train, commented that increased state control over local zoning regulations was necessary.41 Senator Jackson, in response, pointed to the empowering provisions in §403(a)(1) that provided for state guidance, without constituting specific statewide zoning authority. Testimony was also presented by the National Association of Counties, urging that planning should be accomplished at the city or county level.42 National Service to Regional Councils testified that planning should be accomplished by local officials acting through regional councils, which regions would be established by state law or designated by the Governor.43
- on environmental protection: Senator Jackson testified that land use plans should serve as a framework against which decision-making on environmental protection could be made.
To a very great extent all environmental management decisions are ultimately related to land use decisions. All environmental problems are outgrowths of land use patterns. The collective land use decisions which we make today and in the
(Id. at 30.
(NEPA established the Council on Environmental Quality, a three-member committee, appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, within the Executive Office of the President. CEQ was charged with developing presidential policy opinions for issues involving the environment. 42 U.S.C.A. § 4344. Undersecretary of the Interior, Russell Train, was confirmed as CEQ's first chairman. Lyday, supra note 33, at 18.
(Mr. Train also commented that the federal approach to land use must be two fold:
1.a land use program must identify and coordinate those activities of the government which impact land under private as well as public ownership; and
2.the program must account for the existing relationship between local, regional, state and federal agencies already involved in land use planning.
Train did not conclusively support the legislation but rather "reserved his options."
Senate Hearings on S. 3354, supra note 36, at 88.
(Background Papers I, supra note 1, at 29.
(Background Papers I, supra note 1, at 31.