be accommodated, including economic development, environmental preservation and social equity.1
Jackson's proposals met with significant support from many and varied constituencies. In 1972, and again in 1973, the Senate debated and passed national land use legislation; both times with impressive majorities. Yet, despite the Senate's overwhelming support for the bill, the House of Representatives failed to approve the measure.
To date, there have been no further significant attempts, at the federal level, to enact national land use legislation, yet the discussion regarding the need for such a policy continues. Since the early 1970s, several states have enacted statewide land use planning statutes and others are considering similar measures. In fact, there seems to be little debate regarding the need to better manage the land and its resources. The question was, and remains, how.
( Senator Jackson, during the introduction of the National Land Use Planning Act, S. 3354, to the Senate, stated his belief that "[i]ntelligent land use planning and management provides the single most important institutional device for preserving and enhancing the environment, for ecologically sound development and for maintaining conditions capable of supporting a quality life and providing the material means necessary to improve the national standard of living." 116 Cong. Rec. 1757-789 (1970) (hereinafter CR). Morris K. Udall, Land Use: Why We Need Federal Legislation, in No Land Is An Island at 74 (Institute for Contemporary Studies, 1975). "If we are going to avoid the continued waste and exploitation of our resources and the high economic and social costs resulting from existing land use patterns in this country, we are going to have to develop a more rational and comprehensive approach to land use planning." President Nixon, in his August, 1970 message forwarding a Council on Environmental Quality report to the Congress, agreed with Senator Jackson's focus on land use planning and wrote "I believe that the problems of urbanization, ... of resource management and of land and water use generally can only be met by comprehensive approaches which take into account the widest range of social, economic and ecological concerns. I believe we must work toward a National Land Use Policy to be carried out by an effective partnership of Federal State and local governments together." S. Rep. No.1435, 91st Cong., 2d Sess. 31, 32 (1970). Policy Position of the National Governors Conference, infra, note 35, in Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Background Papers on Past and Pending Legislation and the Roles of the Executive Branch, Congress and the States In Land Use Policy and Planning, 92d Congress, 2d Sess. ( U.S. Gov't Printing Office, 1972) at 28-29 (hereinafter Background Papers I).