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depression in young people on a sustained basis. Nonetheless, given the devastating impact that depression can have on young people’s future functioning, further research is needed to develop effective interventions to equip young people with the cognitive skills to buffer its onset on a more sustained basis and to enable them to reach and sustain mental health.

Group cognitive behavioural therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

 Jónsson, H. & Hougaard, E. (2009). Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 19(2), 98-10.

Objective: Behaviour therapy with exposure and response prevention (ERP) or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) including ERP are considered the psychological treatments of choice for obsessive– compulsive disorder (OCD), but group CBT ⁄ERP has received relatively little research attention in the treatment of OCD. The aim of this study was to provide a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of group CBT ⁄ERP for OCD. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted and studies were meta-analysed by means of the Cochrane Review Manager Program with measures of i) pre- to post-effect sizes (ES) and ii) between-group ES in comparison with different control conditions. Outcome was primarily measured on the Y-BOCS and ES was calculated in the form of Cohens d. Results: Thirteen trials were included in the meta-analysis. The overall pre–post-ES of these trials of 1.18 and a between-group ES of 1.12 compared with waiting list control in three randomized controlled studies indicate that group CBT ⁄ERP is an effective treatment for OCD. Group CBT achieved better results than pharmacological treatment in two studies. One study found no significant differences between individual and group CBT. Conclusion: Group CBT is an effective treatment for OCD, but more studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of group and individual treatment formats.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioural interventions to reduce problem gambling: Hedging our bets?

Gooding, P., Tarrier, N. (2009). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(7), 592-607.

Problem gambling is of serious public, social and clinical concern, especially so because ease of access to different types of gambling is increasing. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether Cognitive-Behavioural Therapies (CBT) were effective in reducing gambling behaviour. Twenty-five studies which met the inclusion criteria were identified. Overall, there was a highly significant effect of CBT in reducing gambling behaviours within the first three months of therapy cessation regardless of the type of gambling behaviour practiced. Effect sizes were also significant at six, twelve and twenty-four month follow-up periods. Sub-group analysis suggested that both individual and group therapies were equally as effective in the 3 month time window, however this equivalence was not clear at follow-up. All variants of CBT (cognitive therapy, motivational interviewing and imaginal desensitization) were significant, although there was tentative evidence that when different types of therapy were compared cognitive therapy had an added advantage. Meta-regression analyses showed that the quality of the studies influenced the effect sizes, with those of poorer quality having greater effect sizes. These results give an optimistic message that CBT, in various forms, is effective in reducing gambling behaviours. However, caution is warranted because of the heterogeneity of the studies. Evaluation of treatment for problem gambling lags behind other fields and this needs to be redressed in the future.

Applications of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy to specific disorders: Efficacy and indications.

Epp, A. M., Dobson, K. S., & Cottraux, J. (2009). In: Textbook of psychotherapeutic

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