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a set of hopes/expectations as regards the effects of the treatment on the part of parents and the psychotherapist, to be revisited one year after the start of the psychotherapy and/or at its completion. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, for parents and schools, was also administered before and after the treatment. The characteristics of the first 30 children referred for psychotherapy over a particular time period are described. Of the first 15 children in this group to complete one year of individual psychotherapy, all showed change or significant change in the areas concerning parents' and therapists' hopes at the end-of-year review, as rated by parents and psychotherapists. A case of a child with conduct disorder is used to describe how the assessment generated a psychoanalytic formulation, how the therapist's understanding was fed back to the parents, and how the parents' and therapist's hopes and expectations were derived and recorded. This case illustrates powerfully the impact of trauma in the parents' backgrounds on the internal world of the child, and how the method provides a useful bridge between parent and child work. Feedback from the psychotherapists, the parents and the referrers using the framework is reviewed, and in conclusion the paper argues for the framework's value in promoting good practice in the treatment and management of complex cases and in enhancing awareness of the nature and scope of the psychotherapy process.  

Effectiveness Research in the Context of School-Based Mental Health.

Owens, J., & Murphy, C. (2004). Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 7(4), 195-209.

There are many challenges to transporting evidence-based treatments from laboratories into real-world settings. However, if we hope to make our evidence-based treatments accessible and available to children and usable by community professionals, effectiveness research is imperative. We argue that schools represent an ideal real world setting in which to conduct such research. The goals of this paper are to present the advantages of conducting effectiveness research in the school setting and to encourage clinical researchers to engage in effectiveness research in this "location," as there are benefits to children, pre-service professionals, communities, and researchers. We attempt to further advance the literature by discussing the challenges associated with this work and by providing a case example (The Youth Experiencing Success in School [Y.E.S.S.] Program) that demonstrates real world application of our recommendations.  

A meta-analysis of play therapy outcomes.

Leblanc, M. &  Ritchie, M. (2001). Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 14(2), 149-163.

A meta-analysis of play therapy outcomes with children aged 0–12 yrs was conducted to determine the overall effectiveness of play therapy and the variables related to effectiveness. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to analyze the data. The analysis showed an average treatment effect of 0.66 standard deviations. A strong relationship between treatment effectiveness and the inclusion of parents in the therapeutic process was reported. The duration of therapy also appeared to be related to treatment outcomes, with maximum effect sizes occurring after approximately 30 treatment sessions. Play therapy appeared to be as effective as non-play therapies in treating children experiencing emotional difficulties. Recommendations for future researchers focus on explaining therapeutic or participant characteristics that are related to treatment effectiveness.

Prediction of treatment outcome from relationship variables in child and adolescent therapy: A meta-analytic review.

 Shirk, S. R. & Karver, M. (2003). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(3), 452-464

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