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Results from 23 studies examining associations between therapeutic relationship variables and treatment outcomes in child and adolescent therapy were reviewed with meta-analytic procedures. Results indicated that the overall strength of the relationship-outcome associations was modest and quite similar to results obtained with adults. This modest association was moderated by 1 substantive factor, type of patient problem, and 5 methodological factors, timing and source of relationship measurement, type and source of outcome, and shared versus cross-source measurement of relationship and outcome variables. Type, mode, structure, and context of treatment did not moderate associations between relationship variables and outcomes. Findings indicated that the association between the therapeutic relationship and treatment outcome was consistent across developmental levels and across diverse types and contexts of child and adolescent therapy. Recommendations for future process research on the therapeutic relationship in child psychotherapy are offered.  

A meta-analysis of the effects of psychotherapy with sexually abused children and adolescents.

 Harvey, S., T. & Taylor, J. E. (2010) Clinical Psychology Review,30(5), 517-535.

This paper presents a meta-analysis of the psychotherapy treatment outcome studies for sexually abused children and adolescents. There were 39 studies included, most of which aimed to treat the psychological effects of childhood sexual abuse. Separate meta-analyses were conducted according to study design and outcome domain, in keeping with meta-analytic conventions. However, given heterogeneity across studies and the need for sufficient n in each category for meaningful moderator analyses, the study designs were pooled into a repeated measures meta-analysis. There were large effect sizes for global outcomes (g = 1.37) and PTSD/trauma outcomes (g = 1.12). More moderate effect sizes were evident for internalizing symptoms (g = 0.74), self-appraisal (g = 0.63), externalizing symptoms (g = 0.52), and sexualized behavior (g = 0.49), while 0.43), and social skills/competence (g = 0.38). Effects were maintained at follow-up more than six months after treatment for some outcome domains but not others. Studies represented diverse treatment approaches, and most treatments were effective in symptom reduction. Presence of probable moderators of treatment outcome varied across symptom domains, reflecting importance of targeting therapy to individual needs.

Behavioral outcomes of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A review and meta-analysis.

Thomas, R. & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2007). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology: An official publication of the International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 35(3), 475-495.

We conducted a review and meta-analyses of 24 studies to evaluate and compare the outcomes of two widely disseminated parenting interventions--Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Participants in all studies were caregivers and 3- to 12-year-old children. In general, our analyses revealed positive effects of both interventions, but effects varied depending on intervention length, components, and source of outcome data. Both interventions reduced parent-reported child behavior and parenting problems. The effect sizes for PCIT were large when outcomes of child and parent behaviors were assessed with parent-report, with the exclusion of Abbreviated PCIT, which had moderate effect sizes. All forms of Triple P had moderate to large effects when outcomes were parent-reported child behaviors and parenting, with the exception of Media Triple P, which had small effects. PCIT and an enhanced version of Triple P were associated with improvements in observed child behaviors. These findings provide information about the relative efficacy of two programs that have received substantial funding in the USA and Australia, and findings should assist in making decisions about allocations of

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