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funding and dissemination of these parenting interventions in the future.

 Meta-analysis of therapeutic relationship variables in youth and family therapy: The evidence for different relationship variables in the child and adolescent treatment outcome literature.

Karver, M. S., Handelsman, J. B., Fields, S. & Bickman, L. (2006). Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 50-65.

This meta-analysis examines associations between therapeutic relationship variables, and the extent to which they account for variability in treatment outcomes, in 49 youth treatment studies. Correlations between therapeutic relationship variables ranged from modest to strong. Among the best predictors of youth outcomes were counselor interpersonal skills, therapist direct influence skills, youth willingness to participate in treatment, parent willingness to participate in treatment, youth participation in treatment, and parent participation in treatment. Adequacy of current approaches to conceptualizing and measuring therapeutic relationship variables, such as the therapeutic alliance, in youth and family therapy is discussed. This paper represents the most comprehensive analysis of therapeutic relationship constructs in the youth treatment literature.  

The Efficacy of Play Therapy With Children: A Meta-Analytic Review of Treatment Outcomes. 

Bratton, S. C., Ray, D., Rhine, T. & Jones, L. (2005). Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(4), 376-390.

The efficacy of psychological interventions for children has long been debated among mental health professionals; however, only recently has this issue received national attention, with the U.S. Public Health Service (2000) emphasizing the critical need for early intervention and empirically validated treatments tailored to children's maturational needs. Play therapy is a developmentally responsive intervention widely used by child therapists but often criticized for lacking an adequate research base to support its growing practice. A meta-analysis of 93 controlled outcome studies (published 1953-2000) was conducted to assess the overall efficacy of play therapy and to determine factors that might impact its effectiveness. The overall treatment effect for play therapy interventions was 0.80 standard deviations. Further analysis revealed that effects were more positive for humanistic than for nonhumanistic treatments and that using parents in play therapy produced the largest effects. Play therapy appeared equally effective across age, gender, and presenting issue.  

What works with children, adolescents and adults?: A review of research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy.

Carr, A. (2009). New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group

What works with children, adolescents, and adults? provides an up-to-date review of research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy and psychological interventions with children, adolescents, adults, people in later life, and people with intellectual and pervasive developmental disabilities. Drawing on recent meta-analyses, systematic reviews and key research studies in psychotherapy, this volume presents evidence for: (a) the overall effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy; (b) the contribution of common factors to the outcome of successful psychotherapy; and (c) the effectiveness of specific psychotherapy protocols for particular problems. This comprehensive, user-friendly guide will inform clinical practice, service development and policy. It will be useful to psychotherapists, service managers, policymakers, and researchers.  

Group Therapy

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