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also paranoid, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal personality disorder. It is unknown whether these conclusions also apply to schizoid, antisocial, narcissistic, and histrionic personality disorder.  

Personal Construct Therapy

The efficacy of personal construct therapy: A comprehensive review.  

Holland, J. M., Neimeyer, R. A., Currier, J. M. & Berman, J. S. (2007). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63(1), 93-107.

A recent quantitative review of the personal construct therapy (PCT) outcome literature revealed reliable but somewhat modest effects for this type of therapy. Examination of moderator variables has shown that the efficacy of PCT might vary as a function of other factors, such as whether or not the treatment was tested with a clinical population. In the present study, these findings were expanded on by exploring the relation between the type and severity of presenting problems and treatment outcome as reported in the controlled PCT outcome literature. Overall, results revealed that the efficacy of PCT did not differ substantially across different types of problems, but effect sizes tended to be significantly smaller when more severe problems were being treated.  


 Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of PTSD: A meta-analytic study.

Seidler, G. H. & Wagner, F. E. (2006). Psychological Medicine, 36(11), 1515-1522.

Background: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both widely used in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There has, however, been debate regarding the advantages of one approach over the other. This study sought to determine whether there was any evidence that one treatment was superior to the other. Method: We performed a systematic review of the literature dating from 1989 to 2005 and identified eight publications describing treatment outcomes of EMDR and CBT in active-active comparisons. Seven of these studies were investigated meta-analytically. Results: The superiority of one treatment over the other could not be demonstrated. Trauma-focused CBT and EMDR tend to be equally efficacious. Differences between the two forms of treatment are probably not of clinical significance. While the data indicate that moderator variables influence treatment efficacy, we argue that because of the small number of original studies, little benefit is to be gained from a closer examination of these variables. Further research is needed within the framework of randomized controlled trials. Conclusions: Our results suggest that in the treatment of PTSD, both therapy methods tend to be equally efficacious. We suggest that future research should not restrict its focus to the efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency of these therapy methods but should also attempt to establish which trauma patients are more likely to benefit from one method or the other. What remains unclear is the contribution of the eye movement component in EMDR to treatment outcome.

Evaluation of the efficacy of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in treatment of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder: A meta-analytic review of outcome studies.

Stewart, C. L. & Wrobel, T. A. (2009). Military Medicine, 174(5), 460-469.

A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relative effectiveness of the broad-based treatments for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The analysis includes 13 pharmacotherapy studies and 12 psychotherapy studies obtained from a PsycINFO database

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