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the field's history, overall health care trends, and research on what in fact is the commodity we call psychotherapy

Weighing the evidence for psychotherapy equivalence: Implications for research and practice.

Westmacott, R. & Hunsley, J. (2007). The Behavior Analyst Today, 8(2), 210-225.

In the past two decades, numerous meta-analyses have been published that examine the question of psychotherapy equivalence. Hunsley and Di Giulio (2002) critically reviewed this literature and concluded that there was abundant evidence that the Dodo bird verdict of equivalence across psychotherapies is false. In this article, we summarize and update Hunsley and Di Giulio's (2002) review of recent meta-analyses and comparative treatment studies relevant to this question. Taken together, the empirical evidence clearly indicates that psychotherapy nonequivalence is the rule, not the exception. We discuss these findings and their implications for psychological research and practice.

Does Psychotherapy Help Some Students? An Overview of Psychotherapy Outcome Research.

Eder, K. C., Whiston, S. C. (2006). Professional School Counseling, 9(5,SpecIssue), 337-343.

This article provides a brief overview of the outcome research on psychotherapy with children and adolescents. Outcome research indicates that psychotherapy can be effective with both children and adolescents, with meta-analyses indicating that youth who participated in this type of intervention tended to score on the outcome measures half of a standard deviation or more above those who did not receive any intervention. Little is known about the process of psychotherapy with children, but there are some indications that the therapeutic relationship is important. Moreover, there is some research that supports the assumption that certain types of treatment are most helpful with specific clinical issues.

Efficacy of transdiagnostic treatments: A review of published outcome studies and future research directions.

McEvoy, P. M., Nathan, P. & Norton, P. J. (2009). Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23(1), 2009. Special issue: Transdiagnostic Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Mood & Anxiety Disorders. 20-33.

Theory and evidence relating to biological and psychological vulnerabilities, comorbidity, latent structure, cognitive and behavioral maintaining factors, and treatment outcome suggest that commonalities across emotional disorders may outweigh the differences. Thus, researchers have recently begun evaluating transdiagnostic (or unified) treatment protocols, which target common maintaining factors, by applying them to individuals with multiple disorders or to mixed diagnosis groups. The aim of this article is to review the efficacy of unified protocols for anxiety and mood disorders. Evidence suggests that unified treatments are associated with symptom improvement, generally perform better than wait-list controls, are associated with improvements in comorbid disorders, and may compare well to diagnosis-specific treatments. Unified protocols are also associated with high client satisfaction, therapeutic alliance, group cohesion, and positive treatment expectations. However, these conclusions are tempered by the small number of studies and methodological limitations. We propose directions for future research.  

Comparative therapy outcome research: Methodological implications of meta-analysis.

 Shapiro, D. A. & Shapiro, D. (1983). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(1), 42-53.

Findings obtained in the course of a meta-analysis of 143 outcome studies published over a 5-yr

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