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This study evaluated the impact of psychodynamic inpatient psychotherapy on patients' psychological distress and interpersonal problems during the course of treatment and 1 year later. A total of 156 patients were assessed with the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems at intake, 4 weeks later, and at the end of therapy. The follow-up assessment was conducted 1 year later. Results support psychodynamic approaches as well as the phase model, which stresses that the goals to be achieved by psychotherapeutic interventions are not only improvement of well-being and symptoms but also changes in interpersonal behavior. Consequently, on a long-term basis, the first 4 weeks of therapy seem to be insufficient, especially for adequate changes on the interpersonal level.

The effectiveness of time limits in counseling and psychotherapy: A critical review.

Johnson, D., & Gelso, C. (1980). The Counseling Psychologist, 9(1), 70-83.

Uses a method of classification of studies in order to compare time-limited with time-unlimited treatment. Studies are examined in terms of the sources of outcome measures used and the time of measurement. These appear to be 2 distinctions that have critical implications for the conceptualization and evaluation of time-limited therapy

Efficacy, effectiveness, and expected treatment response in psychotherapy.

Lutz, W. (2003). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59(7), 745-750.

This article provides a summary of "The Evaluation of Psychotherapy: Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Patient Progress" (Howard, Moras, Brill, Martinovich, & Lutz, 1996) and an introduction to the "patient profiling" method. First, the difference between the two main approaches to treatment research in psychotherapy, efficacy research and effectiveness research, are discussed. Next, the idea is introduced that both types of treatment-focused research strategies need to be supplemented by a patient-focused research strategy. The concept of patient profiling is presented as an application of such a patient-focused research strategy. The usefulness of patient profiling for monitoring and evaluating individual patients' progress in ongoing psychotherapy as well as for clinical decision making is described. An expression of the personal and professional impact of Ken Howard on the author is provided.  

Perceived Effectiveness of Mental Health Care Provided by Primary-Care Physicians and Mental Health Specialists.

Wang, J., & Patten, S. (2007). Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry, 48(2), 123-127.

The authors used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health and Well-Being to estimate and compare perceived effectiveness of mental health care provided by general practitioners/family doctors (GP/FDs), by mental health specialists among those who visited GP/ FDs, and by mental health specialists-only in the past 12 months (N = 2,859). The authors found that, in Canada, perceived effectiveness of mental health care provided by GP/FDs did not significantly differ from that provided by mental health specialists. Using services from both GP/FDs and mental health specialists and taking psychotropic medication improved perceived effectiveness of car

The public's perception of psychotherapy and counseling: Differential views on the effectiveness of psychologists, psychiatrists, and other providers.

Richardson, P., & Handal, P. (1995). Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 25(4), 367-385.

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