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control condition. In both cases, significantly greater improvement in core ADHD symptoms was observed in the treated group. Yet, while these studies yielded large effect sizes in the treated group and controlled for the passage of time, they enrolled small samples (15-22 participants per condition) and did not control for nonspecific effects of treatment (e.g., therapist support), which may exert powerful effects on treatment response (17, 18). The authors report that "Meta-cognitive therapy yielded significantly greater improvements in dimensional and categorical estimates of severity of ADHD symptoms compared with supportive therapy." Overall, the results of this study indicate that meta-cognitive therapy provides significant benefit to patients with ADHD with respect to inattention symptoms that reflect the specific functions of time management, organization, and planning. It is the first published study to formally demonstrate the efficacy of a psychosocial treatment in adults with ADHD compared to a condition that controlled for the nonspecific effects of therapy. It thereby represents a noteworthy contribution to a developing literature supporting the benefits of cognitive-behavioral treatment--whether delivered in group or individual format--for the treatment of ADHD in adults. It will be important in future studies to examine the maintenance of these benefits beyond the termination of treatment and to determine the relative efficacy of pharmacotherapy and psychosocial treatments, separately and  together, for the treatment of ADHD."

Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies.

Smith, M. L. & Glass, G. V.  (1977). American Psychologist, 32(9), 752-760.

Results of 375 controlled evaluations of psychotherapy and counseling were coded and integrated statistically. The findings provide convincing evidence of the efficacy of psychotherapy. On the average, the typical therapy client is better off than 75% of untreated individuals. Few important differences in effectiveness could be established among many quite different types of psychotherapy. More generally, virtually no difference in effectiveness was observed between the class of all behavioral therapies (e.g., systematic desensitization and behavior modification) and the nonbehavioral therapies (e.g., Rogerian, psychodynamic, rational-emotive, and transactional analysis).

Discredited psychological treatments and tests: A Delphi poll.

Norcross, J. C., Koocher, G. P. & Garofalo, A. (2006). Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37(5), 515-522.

In the context of intense interest in evidence-based practice (EBP), the authors sought to establish consensus on discredited psychological treatments and assessments using Delphi methodology. A panel of 101 experts participated in a 2-stage survey, reporting familiarity with 59 treatments and 30 assessment techniques and rating these on a continuum from not at all discredited to certainly discredited. The authors report their composite findings as well as significant differences that occurred as a function of the experts' gender and theoretical orientation. The results should be interpreted carefully and humbly, but they do offer a cogent first step in consensually identifying a continuum of discredited procedures in modern mental health practice.

What Should Be Validated?

Chambless, D. L., Crits-Christoph, P., Wampold, B. E., Norcross, J. C., Lambert, M. J., Bohart, A. C., Beutler, L. E. & Johannsen, B. E. (2006). In: Evidence-based practices in mental health: Debate and dialogue on the fundamental questions. J. C. Norcross, L. E. Beutler, & R. F. Levant (Eds.), Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, pp. 191-256.

In the first position paper of this chapter, Dianne L. Chambless and Paul Crits-Christoph argue

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