that, consistent with the thrust of the evidence-based medicine approach (Sackett, Richardson, Rosenberg, & Haynes, 1997), the examination of the empirical basis of the treatment method is essential to the improvement of treatment outcomes. Chambless and Crits-Christoph believe that treatment principles, treatment techniques, and therapist behaviors designed to increase the alliance with the patient are all part of treatment methods. It may be of interest to know, if it were true, that a particular kind of client will benefit from therapy no matter what the method or that a psychotherapist of a particular personality will have positive outcomes no matter what method he or she uses. Nonetheless, unless we are prepared to only offer psychotherapy to those select patients or to only allow those fortunate psychotherapists to practice, these facts would be of little import to the actual practice of psychotherapy. Treatment methods are not where all the action is in relation to outcome, but they are the logical place to intervene to improve care. In the second position paper of this chapter, Bruce E. Wampold contends that, independent of the motivations behind Empirically-Supported Treatments (ESTs) and evidence-based practices (EBPs), the question about the benefits to patients must be answered: Does the validation of a certain aspect of psychotherapy demonstrably benefit patients? Wampold's position paper will focus most directly on this question, and the implications of answering the question are also addressed. The argument presented here that psychotherapists should be validated should not be construed to indicate that some psychotherapists should be punished because they are "invalidated." In the third position paper of this chapter, John C. Norcross and Michael J. Lambert review the robust research and clinical evidence for the curative power of the therapy relationship and argue that it, in addition to the treatment method, the therapist, and the patient, should routinely be emphasized in EBPs in psychotherapy. Much of the research reviewed here was compiled by an APA Division of Psychotherapy Task Force (Norcross, 2001, 2002), which identified, operationalized, and disseminated information on empirically supported (therapy) relationships or ESRs. In the fourth position paper of this chapter, Arthur C. Bohart argues that clients' active self-healing abilities are primary determinants of psychotherapy outcome and, further, that the EST approach in advancing the notion that different treatments are needed for different disorders restricts our view of alternative models of effective therapy. It privileges treatment packages over the potential of client resourcefulness, a privilege not supported by Bohart's interpretation of the research evidence. The EST paradigm should not dominate either how therapy is practiced or how it is researched. Alternate research strategies would place an emphasis on understanding how therapy works in terms of clients' active self-healing efforts, aided and abetted by a collaborative, dialogical relationship. Alternatives to ESTs exist as ways of construing EBPs that are more compatible with the stronger version of the client as an active self-healer. In the fifth position paper of this chapter, Larry E. Beutler and Brynne E. Johannsen briefly review the relationship, participant, and treatment factors identified in the research literature. These factors form the basis of the principles of change summarized in the next section of their position paper. When properly applied, principles of change will allow clinicians to operate research-informed practices, enhance their ability to serve a wider range of patients, and use an eclectic array of empirically supported methods. The chapter concludes with a dialogue among the contributors in which they emphasize their points of agreement and disagreement.
(2010). B. L. Duncan, S. S. Miller, B. E. Wampold, M.A.Hubble, (Eds); Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
Updating the classic first edition of The heart and soul of change (see record 1999-02137-000), editors Duncan, Miller, Wampold, and Hubble have created a new and enriched volume that analyzes the most recent research on what works in therapeutic practice and provides practical guidance on how a therapist can truly deliver what works in therapy. Readers familiar with the first edition will encounter the same pragmatic focus but with a larger breadth of coverage and