new chapters on both youth psychotherapy and substance abuse treatment. The guiding principle is recognition that psychotherapy is implemented one person at a time, on the basis of that unique individual's perceptions of the progress and fit of the therapy and therapist. Chapters examine the common factors underlying effective psychotherapy and bring the psychotherapist and the client-therapist relationship into focus as key determinants of psychotherapy outcome. This new edition also demonstrates that systematic client feedback improves effectiveness and efficiency and legitimizes psychotherapy services to third-party payers. Clinicians reading this volume will improve their understanding of what is truly therapeutic in the diverse forms of psychotherapy practiced today.
Wampold, B. E. (2007). American Psychologist, 62(8), 857-873.
Although it is well established that psychotherapy is remarkably effective, the change process in psychotherapy is not well understood. Psychotherapy is compared with medicine and cultural healing practices to argue that critical aspects of psychotherapy involve human processes that are used in religious, spiritual, and cultural healing practices. A model of psychotherapy is presented that stipulates various aspects that involve uniquely human characteristics. Central to this model is patient acquisition of an adaptive explanation of his or her difficulties. Finally, the research evidence for this model is presented.
Wampold, B. E., Ollendick, T. H. & King, N. J. (2006). In: Evidence-based practices in mental health: Debate and dialogue on the fundamental questions. J. C. Norcross, L. E. Beutler, R. F. Levant, (Eds.); Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, pp. 299-328.
In the first position paper of this chapter, Bruce E. Wampold addresses a single issue: What is the evidence that proves Empirically-Supported Treatments (ESTs) are superior to treatments not so designated? For the purpose of this comment, the evidence used to answer this question will be derived from clinical trials of individual psychotherapy for adults. A psychological treatment for a particular disorder that has not been designated as an EST does not imply that this treatment is not efficacious or as efficacious as an EST. Simply, it may be that this treatment has not been subjected to the test required for designation as an EST. There is no requirement that a particular treatment be superior to another treatment to be designated as an EST. The scientific method stipulates that the null hypothesis be retained until such time that sufficient evidence justifies rejection and acceptance of the alternative hypothesis. That is, the scientific community should not disseminate a claim as being established if the evidence is not strong. The null hypothesis that ESTs are equivalent to non-ESTs must not be rejected in general or in any particular instance. Consequently, no claim for the superiority of ESTs should be made in the scientific community or to the public. In the second position paper of this chapter, Thomas H. Ollendick and Neville J. King address the question of whether those treatments that have been identified as empirically supported produce outcomes superior to those treatments that have not been identified as empirically supported (non-ESTs). Although at first blush the answer to the question at hand may seem obvious, the answer is much more complex largely because not all psychotherapies of different theoretical persuasions have been subjected to "good between-group design experiments," let alone by two or more different investigators or investigatory teams. Thus, it may never be the case that ESTs will be shown to be superior to some commonly practiced and nonempirically supported psychosocial treatments, simply because they have not been, and perhaps never will be, subjected to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) using treatment manuals. This state of affairs is unfortunate for the practice of psychotherapy. In this position paper,