PUBLICATIONS (Just a sampling)
CDC. Bacterial coinfections in lung tissue specimens from fatal cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1)
United States, May--August 2009. MMWR 2009;58(Early Release);1-4.
CDC. Notice to Readers: Licensure of a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine (Hiberix) and updated recommendations for use of Hib vaccine. MMWR 2009;58(36);1008-9.
Cho B, Clark TA, Messonnier NE, Ortega-Sanchez IR, Weintraub E, Messonnier ML. MCV vaccination in the presence of
vaccine-associated Guillain- Barré syndrome risk a decision analysis approach.
Vaccine. Available online 30 October 2009.
Cutland CL, Madhi SA, Zell ER, Kuwanda L, Laque M, Groome M, Gorwitz R, Thigpen MC, Patel R, Velaphi SC, Adrian P, Klugman K, Schuchat A, Schrag SJ, and the PoPS Trial Team. Chlorhexidine maternal- vaginal and neonate body wipes in sepsis and vertical transmission of pathogenic bacteria in South Africa: a randomised, controlled trial. Lancet. Available online 19 October 2009.
Steer AC, Law I, Matatolu LR, Beall B, Carapetis JR. Global emm type distribution of group A streptococci: systematic review and implications for vaccine development. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009;9:611-16.
Whitney AM, Coulson GB, von Gottberg A, Block C, Keller N, Mayer LW, Messonnier NE, Klugman KP. Genotypic comparison of invasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y isolates from the United States, South Africa, and Israel, isolated from 1999 to 2002. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2787-93.
Marked the First World Pneumonia Day
Houston, Jennifer Loo and Alison Patti, with assistance from Kristin Pope, NCIRD’s associate director for policy, in collaborating with the center’s subject matter experts to develop a variety of products to increase awareness about pneumonia, including a web feature on the CDC homepage, a Health-e-Card, an MMWR Announcement, podcasts, and a video screening and reception at CDC.
neumonia is a leading killer of both children and adults around the globe.
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that pneumonia kills approximately 2 million children under the age of five years world wide each year.
To establish November 2nd as a worldwide observance, a diverse group of global health, humanitarian, business and industry, advocacy, faith-based and community organizations worked as a coalition to increase worldwide awareness about the global burden of pneumonia and prevention and treatment options, with CDC and UNICEF providing technical assistance. Activities such as forums, rallies and sporting events took place around the globe to commemorate the day, including the first Global Pneumonia Summit held in New York City.
At the CDC event, NCIRD and DBD leadership provided opening remarks highlighting the burden of pneumonia and CDC’s ongoing commitment to address this disease. CDC staff and students from several Atlanta-area universities attended the event.
CDC is actively engaged in the detection, prevention and treatment of pneumonia globally. An array of research and surveillance activities and laboratory training programs to help build capacity in developing countries, global health policy, communication and public health education are underway. The agency is working with countries to help them achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4, which seeks to reduce mortality by two-thirds by 2015 among children less than five years of age. The November 2nd CDC Connects featured an article profiling a number of CDC’s pneumonia activities. Find more information and resources at www.WorldPneumoniaDay.org and www.cdc.gov/ncird/ DBD.html.
Gathering at the Asia Society in New York City on November 2nd to begin to change the way the world responds to a leading killer of children – pneumonia – were a host of influential persons, including: Professor Jeffrey Sachs, Director of The Earth Institute at Columbia University and Special Advisor to United Nations Secretary-General, Beniniose singer- songwriter and UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Angelique Kidjo, and ABC News’ Senior Health and Medical Editor Dr. Rich Besser, along with more than 150 global health experts, philanthropists, faith-based leaders, corporate representatives and child advocates.
Twenty internationally recognized speakers addressed topics ranging from the importance of clean water and vaccines to maternal and child health interventions to prevent and control pneumonia. It will take many different approaches to reduce the burden of pneumonia, and the Summit served as a platform for the release of the new World Health Organization/UNICEF led Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia (GAPP) (www.who. int/bulletin/volumes/86/5/08-053348/en), which outlines a six-year plan for the worldwide scale-up of a comprehensive set of interventions to control the disease. DBD’s director, Rana Hajjeh, was among the speakers and Marsha Houston, DBD’s policy officer, was the chair of the international workgroup responsible for organizing the Summit.
Nearly everyone attending the Summit wore blue jeans as part of a global campaign to raise awareness about child pneumonia deaths. Blue is the official color for the fight against pneumonia, signifying a child’s struggle to breathe when battling the disease. Earlier in the day, World Pneumonia Day organizers braved the 5:00am New York City chill to land a prime front row spot in the street audience at the NBC Today Show to promote the day and the significance of people wearing blue jeans.
For several months leading up to World Pneumonia Day, Dr. Hajjeh guided DBD and RDB staffers Dr.Adam Cohen, Marsha
Photo: CDC’s Jennifer Loo, Dr. Larry Anderson (DVD), Marsha Houston and Dr. Rana Hajjeh are pictured here in blue jeans celebrating the success of the first Global Pneumonia Summit with Dr. Mathruam Santosham from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health — the lead organization for World Pneumonia Day.
Congratulations to MVPDB’s Douglas Avery, who is
now an American Society for Quality (ASQ)-Certified Quality Auditor. As such, he has reached a significant level of professional recognition, indicating a proficiency in and a comprehension of quality auditing tools and techniques. To learn more about ASQ’s Certified Quality Auditor program, visit www.asq.org/certification/quality auditor.
Stephanie Schwartz is now serving in the newly-created
role as DBD’s Global Laboratory Coordinator. Her primary role at this stage is coordination of laboratory activities for the WHO surveillance networks for vaccine-preventable bacterial diseases. DBD partners with WHO to provide technical assistance for these networks, and has recently signed a contract with WHO to serve as a global reference laboratory for surveillance of these diseases.
Vaccine Effectiveness Analysis for MCV4
eningococcal disease is a very serious bacterial infection, which progresses rapidly, and is the leading
cause of bacterial meningitis in adolescents. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) currently recommends routine vaccination of adolescents 11-18 years of age at the earliest opportunity. Vaccination is the best way to prevent meningococcal infections and meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) works well and protects most people who receive it.
Rates of meningococcal disease are at a historic low in the United States. However, the goal of the meningococcal vaccination program remains to prevent as many cases of meningococcal disease as is possible – because of the sudden onset and rapid progression of meningococcal disease and the continued high case-fatality ratio. A better understanding of the properties of meningococcal conjugate vaccines and the implications of programmatic decisions are needed.
MCV4 was licensed based on safety and immunogenicity data, but there was no clinical effectiveness data collected pre-licensure. CDC typically conducts vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies after licensure of new vaccines when no clinical efficacy studies are done prior to licensure.
The Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB) is
used in the U.S. Supported with American Recovery & Reinvestment Act funds, this study is being conducted in 27 states and is expected to continue through 2011. Enrollment in this case-control study has been slow due to the current low incidence of meningococcal disease. In light of this low incidence, MVPDB conducted a vaccine effectiveness analysis using a simulation approach as a way to get an early estimate of MCV4 effectiveness while the case-control study continues. Results of the simulation approach were presented at the 2009 Infectious Diseases Society of America Annual Meeting.
The MCV4 VE simulation analysis suggests that the vaccine is 80-90% effective against serogroups C and Y meningococcal disease in adolescents. This is similar to the vaccine efficacy reported for polysaccharide vaccine against serogroup C disease. This estimate of MCV4 effectiveness against serogroups C and Y is similar to what might be expected from the immunogenicity data from the clinical trials for the vaccine, but it is lower than other meningococcal conjugate vaccines used in other countries. Only serogroups C and Y were looked at because there is very little serogroup W-135 disease and essentially no serogroup A disease in the U.S. These serogroups are important for persons traveling to other parts of the world where W-135 or A may be endemic. Serogroup Y is not included in conjugate vaccines that are used in other countries.
In addition to conducting a case-control study to determine VE for MCV4 against serogroups C and Y meningococcal disease, MVPDB is developing studies to follow-up with persons who develop meningococcal disease after being vaccinated with meningococcal vaccines. With these studies, researchers hope to understand why some people are not protected after vaccination, and to determine how long protection with MCV4 lasts.
IEIP Influenza Joint Meeting was held August 24-25, 2009 in Bangkok, Thailand to review status of novel 2009 H1N1 influenza and define priorities and identify activities to contribute to the H1N1 response, to review IEIP and influenza site activities for pneumonia and influenza, and to define priorities and objectives for pneumonia and influenza surveillance for the next 2-3 years; specifically, to define the burden of influenza disease, including 2009 H1N1. Staff from DBD, DVD, and DEISS (IEIP) attended the meeting.
Anthrax Vaccine Research Program Investigators Meeting was held September 9, 2009 in Atlanta, GA. The Anthrax Vaccine Research Program (including: Jennifer Wright, Conrad Quinn, Brian Plikaytis and Chuck Rose) presented findings from the nearly 10 year clinical trial and associated non human primate studies to key stakeholders.
Get Smart Retail Pharmacy Summit was held October 1, 2009 in Atlanta, GA. Representatives from national retail pharmacy chains, non-profit and advocacy organizations, and CDC staff met for presentations on the latest science on antibiotic use and resistance, discussions on the important role pharmacists and retail pharmacies can play in educating patients, and specific and successful strategies that can enhance social responsibility and profitability through partnerships with the Get Smart campaign.
International Conference on Legionella was held October 13-17, 2009 in Paris, France. The Conference is a premier international meeting held every four years to discuss new findings on Legionella pneumophila, other Legionella, and the disease caused by these organisms and also to identify knowledge gaps that exist in controlling Legionella infections of humans. The 7th International Conference in this series, Legionella 2009, addressed a wide range of current research and trends related to Legionella. RDB’s Barry Fields presented the opening talk. Lauri Hicks, Patrick Yang, Claressa Lucas and Natalia Kozak presented talks and/or posters.
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GAVI Board and Partners Meeting was held November 17-19, 2009 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Dr. Hajjeh participated in a panel discussion on “Changing the business of global health and delivering results.”
team to assure a smooth transition into a PP specific STARLIMS unit.
In approximately 4 months since the start of the MPIR Lab/PP Team collaboration more than 3,100 specimens have been accessioned into STARLIMS, which translates into over 20,000 physical aliquots encompassing 17 separate serological studies. During this same time period, the laboratory team has completed initial testing on approximately 33% of these specimens; a staggering accomplishment of more than 11,000 test samples tested by 2 different serologic assays for 8 of the 17 studies currently in the STARLIMS system.
Eddie Ades, DBD’s associate director for laboratory science, commented that, “The collaboration across divisions to support CDC’s response to the H1N1 pandemic demonstrates CDC’s expertise and dedication in the face of enormous public health challenges and exemplifies what can be achieved when high performing teams share a common goal.”