X hits on this document

15 views

0 shares

0 downloads

0 comments

5 / 8

b

Articles - Rogers et al.

30 X..

30 i l ' . i a 0 3 8 g b g 0 g b i l ' i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . w . . . . . .

|

!.|. 5

'l

@

COMEsg1.. l

NO

--

c s s a r m d w U F " ' M e r e 0 . 2 2 a n d 2 . 8 2 p g / g , r e s p e c t i v e l y ; t h e m e a n c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n r e s i d e n t s w h o d i d

__________

No.|g,l,080 0'i@',,2;eXii509000SigW

sa

.W,g

_ AccesstoGandHwater .,,

have access was 0.21 pg/g for As and 2.80 ig/g for Cr. While there are differences in

25

..|~ f

rr r,, r,,

|*

k'-gF, It .i g

t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n s r e p o r t e d o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ( s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 3 ) , a s w e l l a s a n a l y t i c a l _ _ r t e c h n i q u e s u s e d , i t i s g e n e r a l l y r e p o r t e d t h a t ~ ~ ~ ~ . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t h e b a c k g r o u n d n o r m a l , l e v e l i n h u m a , or n

20

0.0*0.2 if 11

5A

IL

0.4

15

il

0.8

1.0

~

4i

sml e l|ll

1.2

1

1.4

m

20

1.6

~~

X

1.8

~

a

~

2.0

h a i r ( i . e . , t h e l e v e l i n h e a l t h y i n d i v i d u a l s w h o L h a v e n o k n o w n e x p o s u r e s ) f o r A s i s < 1 . 5 p g / g [ t h e t h r e s h o l d f o r a b n o r m a l i n g e s t i o n i s t h o u g h t t o b e 3 p g / g ( 1 9 ) ] . T h i s s u g g e s t s a s s o c i t h t t h e l e v e l s o f A s m e a s u r e d i n t h e h a i r o f

l W o b u r n r e s i d e n t s w e r e w i t h i n t h e n o r m a l b a c k g r o u n d r a n g e , e x c e p t f o r o n e s a m p l e i w h i c h m e a s u r e d 1 . 9 p g / g . B a c k g r o u n d , o r g n o r m a l , l e v e l s f o r C r i n h u m a n h a i r h a v e n o t

10

_

isg

been reported. Previous studies have investigated the

relationship between access to water from wells G and H and effects on human

5

_

J

health. In response to indications that cases of childhood leukemia in Woburn were

significantly elevated from 1964 to 1983, Lagakos et al. (35) carried out an epidemi-

a

00

2 ~~~

02

~~

04

.

06

08

..

~~ ...~~~:..~~::.;±;~~~~

10

Iffom w 0 ; p< i;w

_ 16 12 14

18

sz

20

o l o g i c a l s t u d y a n d f o u n d t h a t a b o u t h a l f o f t h e e x c e s s l e u k e m i a c a s e s w e r e p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c c e s s t o w a t e r f r o m w e l l s G a n d H . H o w e v e r , a c c e s s t o w a t e r f r o m w e l l s G a n d H c o u l d n o t e x p l a i n a l l o f t h e e x c e s s l e u k e m i a c a s e s b e c a u s e s e v e r a l c a s e s were in the western part of Woburn, which

C

r e c e i v e d i t s d r i n k i n g w a t e r f r o m a d i f f e r e n t n s o u r c e . I n a s e c o n d e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l s t u d y , i t h M a s s a c h u s e t t s D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c H e a l t h ( 2 8 ) r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l

w ~ ~ f l i f 1 J ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ i f i f i f i f ~ a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n c h i l d h o o d l e u k e m i a I F F , * . . - a n d a c c e s s t o w a t e r f r o m w e l l s G a n d H i f e i t h e r t h e d e v e l o p i n g f e t u s h a d a c c e s s t o . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i f * ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i f ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t h e w e l w a t e r o r t h e m o t h e r h d a c c e s s f r

ii~~~~~if~~~~~~~~ ~~~ ~~"~'' 44-~~~if.4.i4~~~

2 years prior to conception. No association

~~~~~~~ ~~~~~was found between childhood leukemia and water from wells G and H for access

= ~~~~

.. ,

'Al

~~~~~~~~ ~~~

~

..

~~ ~~~~~..~~~~

  • -

    .~~~~~~

~~~

.

r

~~~~that occurred between birth and the diag- ~nosis of the disease.

I n b o t h o f t h e s e s t u d i e s , a c c e s s t o w a t e r f r o m w e l l s G a n d H w a s e s t i m a t e d b y u s i n g ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r e c o r d s o f w e l l p u m p i n g r a t e s a n d m o d e l s o f . ~ ~ ~ ~ . t h W b u r n w a t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m .

.if~~~~~~~ * A if .

4if..~.

  • -

    ~~ ifif~(.

~ ~ L a g a k o s e t a l . ( 3 5 ) u s e d a m o d e l d e v e l o p e d ~ ~ ~ ~ y W a l d o r f a n d C l e a r y ( 3 6 ) ; t h e M a s s a c h u - s e t t s D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c H e a l t h ( 2 8 ) u s e d a l a t e r m o d e l d e v e l o p e d b y M u r p h y ( 1 4 ) .

Although the two models indicate that roughly the same area of Woburn received

0

2

~

~0 ~~~

4

6

~

8

..

10

le 12 P't 14 16 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ w a t e r f r o m w e l l s G a n d H , t h e M u r p h y m d e l ( 1 4 ) i n d t i c a t e s a g r e a t e r t e m p o r a l v a r i a - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t i o n i n t h e a m o u n t s o f w a t e r r e c e i v e d w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s u b u n i t s o f t h i s a r e a . T h e M u r p h y m o d e l w a s d e v e l o p e d u s i n g u p d a t e d i n f o r m a -

Concentration in hair (~tg/g) Figure 4. Histograms of (A) As and (B) Cr concentrations in hair samples from Woburn residents.

t i o n o n t h e c i t y ' s w a t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m , a n d i t w a s c a l i b r a t e d w i t h ' p r e s s u r e a n d c h e m - i c a l t r a c e r m e a s u r e m e n t s ; t h e r e f o r e , i t i s l i k e l y

1 094

Volume 105, Number 10, October 1997 * Environmental Health Perspectives

Document info
Document views15
Page views15
Page last viewedTue Oct 25 15:30:19 UTC 2016
Pages8
Paragraphs560
Words9674

Comments