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proportion on therapy for hypertension and abnormal cholesterol was 11.6% and 7.7% for men and 15.5% and 7.4% for women. This illustrates the potential to reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease through prevention and treatment programs and by doing so both improve the health and the productivity of the population.

The prevalence of clinically confirmed diabetes and cardiovascular disease in males over 25 years of age is similar at 8.0 % but lower in females at 6.9% and 7.0%. Prevalence rises with age so that by age 55-64 years 16.6% of men and 9.5% of women have diabetes and 13.6 % of men and 5.3% of women have cardiovascular disease. Table 2 shows the percentage labour force participation by disease status. It suggests a low rate of labour force participation in persons with diabetes (22%) or cardiovascular disease (30%) or both (9%) compared to the average 66%. The data shown in Table 3 suggest that there is a considerable difference in the probability of being in the labour force between those with and without a chronic disease. The difference in proportions is particularly marked in men and women over 55 years when diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevalence and severity are highest.

Labour force

Cardiovascular

Diabetes

participation

disease

0.66

0.08

0.07

0.30

1

0.23

0.22

0.23

1

0.09

1

1

Table 2: Observed proportions in labour force by disease status all persons aged 25 years and over

P(.) P(.|CVD=1) P(.|Diab=1) P(.|CVD=1,Diab=1)

Chronic disease and labour force participation in Australia: an endogenous multivariate probit analysis of clinical prevalence data

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