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Management Functions in Nursing: Theory & Application by Marquis and Huston (2003). Leadership theories such as servant leadership (Greenleaf, 1970), transformational leadership (Burns, 1978) interactional leadership or reengineering management (Hammer & Champy, 1993) are referred to in this book. This publication exemplifies how readily accessed nursing leadership texts refer to these mainstream theories when introducing the content of their books. Greenleaf, Burns and Hammer and Champy are not nurses but, as Moiden suggests, their theories are often used when discussing the attributes that allow effective nursing leadership to take place.

Evidence of utilisation of such theories can be found in several studies. Bowles and Bowles (2000) sought to compare the degree to which first line nurse managers in a Nursing Development Unit and a non Nursing Development Unit demonstrated transformational leadership behaviour. The results indicated that Nursing Development Unit leaders have higher degrees of evidence of transformational leadership than their counterparts. Upeniek’s (2002) work further exemplifies researching into nursing leadership using non-nursing theory, in this case Kanter’s (1977) theory of organisational behaviour. Kanter examined what constituted successful nurse leadership and if there was a link between the level of success and existing organisational infrastructure. Sixteen nurse leaders were interviewed for their understanding of leadership traits and a link was made between access to resources and effective nursing leadership. Stordeur, D’Hoore and Vandenberghe’s (2001) study looked at the effect of work stress and the nursing leaders’ transformational and transactional leadership and the effect on the levels of emotional exhaustion among their staff. Welford (2002) argues that transformational leadership is principally suited to nursing leadership. Tourangeau and McGilton (2004) invited 73 nurses, consisting of pairs made up of leaders and aspiring leaders, to use a 30 item tool called the Leadership Practice Inventory (LPI) to measure their leadership behaviour. This 30-item tool had been developed by non nurses Kouzes and Posner in 1995. The above studies illustrate how the evolution of nursing leadership in general has been influenced by a dialogue derived from mainstream leadership/management theories as explained by McCormack and Moiden and found in works by Marquis and Huston. Some authors,


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