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however, adopted new approaches to understanding leadership in nursing removed from such instruments or theories.

Antrobus and Kitson’s (1999) study examined contemporary nursing leadership in context without reference to general leadership theories. Twenty-four nursing leaders identified by their peers as effective nursing leaders were interviewed. The results questioned the political success that nursing leadership has had when concentrating on “internal professional concern” (p. 747). Antrobus and Kitson recommended that further research is needed into nursing leadership; that consideration should be given to establishing a nursing national policy unit; and that the creation of a career pathway for nursing that includes political, management academic and clinical areas is required. Hennessy and Hicks (2003) conducted a Delphi study in Europe which identified the characteristics considered to be the most pertinent in a Chief Nurse. The experts were drawn from appropriate personnel from government level health departments, senior health professionals alongside other people agreed as having a key perspective on the subject. The results included a profile of characteristics considered to be pivotal to the role of Chief Nurse that could be utilised for selection and the future development of Chief Nurses across European states.

Sullivan, Bretschneider and McClausland (2003) based the design of a leadership programme for nurse managers on results from a qualitative study that used focus groups to collect data from all levels of nursing leaders. This study, with 94 participants, allowed those within the role to be involved with their professional development. Laurent (2000) and Porter O’Grady’s (2003) contributions are examples of useful non-research opinion- led commentaries. Laurent proposes the use of Ida Orlando’s model for nursing to provide a nursing foundation for nursing leaders to use both in management and leadership. Porter- O’Grady suggests leaders in health care need to move away from the broad based themes of leadership behaviour and become more self and socially aware. The context in which health care leaders operate in is, he asserts, fast paced and driven by innovation and technological change. He concludes that leaders must craft a new context for workers in order for the profession to connect with the realties of the environs they practice in. These commentaries like Porter-O’Grady, alongside research such as Antrobus and Kitson’s


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