challenging requirements of the warfighting commander. The entire national intelligence community was energized, focused and committed to supporting tactical commanders. Most notable among the national intelligence agencies who responded quickly to tactical commanders were the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and the National Security Agency (NSA).
DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONTRIBUTIONS
The Defense Intelligence Agency activated an Intelligence Task Force and an Operational Intelligence Crisis Center on 1 August 1990. The Intelligence Task Force, residing in the Pentagon, focused on short-term intelligence production and briefing support to the Joint Staff and forward deployed warfighters. The Operational Intelligence Crisis Center, residing at Bolling Air Force Base in the Defense Intelligence Agency’s Analysis Center, focused on long-term intelligence analysis and production in support of the Joint Staff and deployed campaign planners. Moreover, DIA deployed 11 National Military Intelligence Support Teams (NMISTs) to directly interface with tactical commanders in the field. The NMIST teams served as a direct link between the tactical commander and the national intelligence community. These teams were predominately manned with intelligence analysts who were resourced with state-of-the-art communications capabilities back to Washington.vi The NMIST team concept, first employed during OPERATION EARNEST WILL and OPERATION JUST CAUSE, was further refined during the Gulf War and has since contributed immeasurably toward a number of operational successes.vii
NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY CONTRIBUTIONS
The National Security Agency provided highly tailored Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) products to support tactical commanders as well as provided liaison elements to several forward-deployed operational commands. These liaison teams served a similar task and purpose to the DIA NMIST teams mentioned previously.viii These NSA SIGINT subject matter experts, coupled with their reachback communications capability, were warmly received at all echelons of command and expertly filled a void in much of the operating force. Like their DIA NMIST counter-part, these NSA liaison elements clearly paved the way for future support to the warfighter.