for their respective commanders.xxxvi Once U.S. military forces were committed to combat operations, intelligence analysts were forced to cope with a rapidly changing environment to provide their commanders with timely, relevant and accurate intelligence reporting. Moreover, intelligence analysts were further challenged to share intelligence with subordinate, adjacent and higher headquarters so that warfighting commanders could achieve some semblance of common situational awareness. Like intelligence collection operations, intelligence analysis had its share of noteworthy achievements and shortcomings. Enduring lessons with respect to intelligence analysis emerged in the broad areas of:
Joint Intelligence Centers (JICs).
Tactical intelligence analysis.
Intelligence analyst training.
JOINT INTELLIGENCE CENTERS
Born out of OPERATION URGENT FURY (October 1983) and the Goldwater-Nicols Act of 1986, there has been a tremendous emphasis on improved joint operations or “jointness” in U.S. military operations. To that end, a number of Joint Intelligence Centers were established, the most notable being the Department of Defense JIC.xxxvii
The DoD JIC was created to provide a single defense intelligence coordinating organization to theater intelligence consumers. This was a noteworthy and long needed initiative welcomed by most in the U.S. intelligence community. U.S. CENTCOM then established its own JIC, following the DoD lead, to coordinate more efficient theater intelligence operations as well as to develop and refine bomb damage assessment procedures.
While the U.S. CENTCOM JIC and the DoD JIC experienced a similar number of challenges, the DoD JIC appears to be the JIC that best represents the enduring lessons common to all JICs supporting OPERATION DESERT SHIELD/STORM. The DoD JIC was created to speak as one voice for the Department of Defense on intelligence matters. This DoD JIC was comprised of representatives from the services, DIA and NSA. The newly created JIC, together with the Operational Intelligence Crisis Center (OICC), was designated to support the Intelligence Task Force (ITF) subordinate to the Deputy Director of DIA (DDIA). The major distinction between the DoD JIC and the OICC was the fact that while the OICC was concerned primarily with long-term intelligence studies and non time-sensitive taskings, the DoD JIC was a current intelligence center charged with reacting immediately to the requirements of the operational commander.xxxviii