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hiring, we find that there is a strong relationship between the fraction of employers that indicate

that they are willing to fill positions currently with ex-offenders and their willingness to accept

applications from this group into the last filled noncollege job. The ordering of these responses

is as follows: those employers that are willing to accept are more likely to indicate that they are

willing to fill positions currently with ex-offenders followed by those who indicate that it

depends on the crime and then by those who state they are unwilling.

Figures 2 and 3 suggest that employer responses concerning their willingness to hire or

actual hiring of ex-offenders are consistent. This lends support to our earlier results, especially

of those that require prospective answers from employers (Holzer, et. al., Forthcoming). In

addition, employers who indicate “depends on the crime” to questions about their willingness to

accept applicants from ex-offenders seem to imply that their willingness to hire any individual

from this group is conditional on specific information about the ex-offender. This information

could include a host of factors such as how recently the offender was released from prison,

offense committed, as well as whether they have any work experience, to name a few.

Employer attitudes towards applicants with criminal histories, as well as their actual

hiring behavior, are likely to be associated with the establishment characteristics. Earlier work

demonstrates that industries with little customer contact, such as manufacturing, are more willing

to hire ex-offenders than others (Holzer et. al., Forthcoming). Table 1 displays averages of

establishment characteristics, stratified by the responses to the question concerning willingness

to consider ex-offenders applicants (in the last filled noncollege job) and actual hiring of them

over the past year. Establishment characteristics include industry, size, vacancy rates, the

on the employer’s current assessment of their labor needs rather than an expected demand over a future time period during which product demand, turnover, and other determinants of hiring are much more uncertain.


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