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although the sessions can be analyzed less thoroughly by reviewing notes taken during the discussion. Avoid counting or quantifying types of responses (e.g., “75 percent of participants preferred concept A”). Because this is qualitative research, you can’t quantify

the results or suggest that they represent the opinions of the audience as a whole.

Results are worthless if they aren’t used. Use them to answer the questions you drafted to guide the research design—to shape the cam- paign strateg , message, and materials design.

Also, your results help you “sell” your program as “researched and tested.” Share your findings with partners and others who might benefit.

Estimated Costs of Focus Groups and Interviews

The cost estimates in Table 3.2 can help you budget for pretesting if you’re using commer- cial research firms. Your actual costs will vary depending on your location, the target audience being recruited, and the amount of time contributed by staff, contractors, and participants. For example, if your staff includes

a focus group expert who can analyze the results, you won’t have to pay a contractor for that task. However, don’t jeopardize the quality of your results with a budget that’s too small.

The estimates for focus groups assume that you conduct two groups, each with 10 mem-

Develop screener*



Develop discussion guide*



Recruit participants



Rent facility



Provide respondent incentives/refreshments



Hire moderator or interviewer



Audiotape and videotape sessions Transcribe audiotapes



Analyze research findings and write report*






Table 3.2: Estimated Costs of Two Focus Groups and 10 Individual In-Depth Interviews Conducted With Participants From the General Population


*One-time costs that will not be incurred for each group.


Chapter 3: Gaining and Using Target Audience Insights

Costs of Two Focus Groups

Costs of 10 Individual In-Depth Interviews

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