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Mojúbàolú Olúfúnké Okome and Bertrade Ngo-Ngijol Banoum - page 5 / 27





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Africans on the Move: Transnational, Intranational, and Metaphorical Migrations

The Act also provides that those who are unable to fulfill the specified conditions must prove that they were unable to fulfill the conditions and demonstrate that they would face significant hardship if deported from the US. Pursuant to an amendment that was sponsored by Senators Charles Grassley (R-Iowa) and Dianne Feinstein, all students that are granted conditional residency under the DREAM Act must also be tracked by the SEVIS system that was devised to track foreign students, and they are not eligible for Pell Grants, but can apply for work study and federal student loans.[14]

The League of United Latin American Citizens, (LULAC) supported and actively advocated for the passage of the Act.[15] On the other hand, the Federation for American

Immigration Reform (FAIR) was categorically opposed to the Act, actively campaigning for its elimination, and lamenting the passage of the bill by characterizing it as follows: “Senator Orrin Hatch's DREAM Act is a massive illegal alien amnesty program disguised as an educational initiative.”[16] Better coalition building and information

campaigns by immigrants rights advocacy organizations and grassroots activism by immigrants themselves is necessary to ensure the passage of laws that are more favorable to immigrants. The need for such organizations and coalition building among African immigrants cannot be over-emphasized.

Grosfoguel, who argues that migration reflects the circumstances intrinsic to the development of the world system, provides a framework through which one can understand the frenzied anti-immigrant goings on in the post-September 11 2001 Europe and America. His focus on the relationship between metropole and colonies as played out by migrant transgressors into the heart of empire provides a window through which one can consider the relationship between the centers and peripheries of today’s world system. We still live in a capitalist world system where opportunities for economic advancement are foreclosed to the overwhelming majority of people in the global south who pursue migration to the north as an avenue to economic survival. The core countries also afford refuge from oppressive authoritarian regimes, many of them sponsored by patron states to which the refugees flee in the north.

In times of trouble, these economic and political refugees bear the brunt of the nativist, xenophobic and virulent resentment that forever lurks below the surface in their host countries. This was the experience of the Caribbean migrants that Grosfoguel focuses upon in the sense that their presence led to development crises in the national identity of each core countries that they settled in. In each of these metropolitan countries, there was an observable shift in racial discourses as well as the development of what Grosfoguel terms the coloniality of power. Thus, while colonialism has ended, the relationship between the old metropole and its former colonies remains one of keeping migrants from

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