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Website Resources Schizophrenia www.schizophrenia.com

Bipolar Disorder www.mhsource.com/bipolar www.bpkids.org NAMI www.nami.org www.nami.org/helpline/peoplew.htm (well- known people with mental illnesses)

Multi-specialty site cooperating with APA: www.medem.com www.rcpsych.ac.uk/info (Psychological approaches to psychosis)

Early Intervention with Psychosis www.iepa.org.au (International Early Psychosis Association)

Antistigma www.adscenter.org

Government Sites www.samhsa.gov/cmhs www.nimh.nih.gov

Stress and Drug Abuse www.nida.nih.gov/DrugPages/Stress.html

Professional Organizations/Publications Most valuable for schizophrenia information of high quality from peer- reviewed journals would be the American Psychiatric Association’s site: www.psych.org

Special Populations Appendix

A review of the literature addressing the range of populations for which family psychoeducation has demonstrated efficacy or effectiveness, including factors such as age, race, ethnicity, gender, diagnosis, nationality, institutional setting, sexual orientation, and rural or urban location.

The most consistent finding from the family psychoeducation (FPE) literature has been the absence of specific client factors predicting better outcomes. Diagnosis may be the closest to a specific indicator, but that is primarily because there are fewer published studies of outcomes for diagnoses other than schizophrenia. Specifically, symptomatologies, age, gender, disability status, prior hospitalization, duration of illness and education have been examined and none have proven to be strong or consistent predictors. Family expressed emotion at baseline has proven to predict outcome within studies of treatment effects, as it has in studies without intervention (1, 2). However, Falloon showed that outcome was better predicted by coping skill improvements in treatment for family members (3).

At present, FPE has been shown to be most effective for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. There have been at least 20 controlled trials, involving nearly 5000 consumers and their families, and two are underway in Scandinavia that will involve nearly 1000 consumers and their families. Outcome has been remarkably consistent across all but two of the published clinical trials (4, 5). For that reason, schizophrenia is the principal diagnostic focus of this toolkit. Briefly described within the Workbook, modifications have been developed and tested for bipolar disorder (6, 7), depression (8), borderline personality disorder (9) and OCD (10). Multifamily group versions for these disorders have recently been described in Multifamily Groups in the Treatment of Severe Psychiatric Disorders (11).

Family Psychoeducation Toolkit

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