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to M300. In single-trial analysis the variability of response strengths increased in a direct proportion to response amplitude, demonstrating the averaged responses to be composed of graded rather than of all-or-nothing-type single responses.

Yao B, Salenius S, Yue GH, Brown RW, and Liu JZ: Effects of surface EMG rectification on power and coherence analyses: An EEG and MEG study. J Neurosci Meth 2007, 159: 215–223.

Coherence between electromyography (EMG) and electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) is frequently examined to gain insights on neuromuscular binding. Commonly, EMG signals are rectified before coherence is computed. However, the appropriateness of EMG rectification in computing EMG-EEG/MEG coherence has never been validated. Since rectification is a non-linear operation and alters the EMG power spectrum, such a validation is important to ensure the accuracy of coherence calculation. In this study we experimentally investigated the effects of EMG rectification on EMG power spectra and its coherence with EEG/MEG signals. Subjects performed sustained isometric index finger abduction at approximately 5-10% maximal voluntary force (in both EEG-EMG and MEG-EMG experiments) and index finger tapping at approximately 2-4Hz (in EEG-EMG experiment only). Bipolar surface EMG data from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) and EEG/MEG signals from the contralateral primary sensorimotor area (C3) were recorded simultaneously. Power spectra and coherence with the EEG/MEG were calculated before and after EMG rectification. The results show that rectification shifts EMG power to lower frequencies, possibly enhancing peaks of motor unit firing. Coherences with the EEG/MEG signals were not significantly changed by EMG rectification, indicating EMG rectification is overall an appropriate procedure in power and coherence analyses.


Kujala J, Pammer K, Cornelissen P, Roebroeck A, Formisano E, and Salmelin R: Phase coupling in a cerebro-cerebellar network at 8–13 Hz during reading. Cereb Cortex 2007, 17: 1476-1485.

Words forming a continuous story were presented to 9 subjects at frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 Hz, determined individually to render comprehension easy, effortful, or practically impossible. We identified a left-hemisphere neural network sensitive to reading performance directly from the time courses of activation in the brain, derived from magnetoencephalography data. Regardless of the stimulus rate, communication within the long-range neural network occurred at a frequency of 8-13 Hz. Our coherence-based detection of interconnected nodes reproduced several brain regions that have been previously reported as active in reading tasks, based on traditional contrast estimates. Intriguingly, the face motor cortex and the cerebellum, typically associated with speech production, and the orbitofrontal cortex, linked to visual recognition and working memory, additionally emerged as densely connected components of the network. The left inferior occipitotemporal cortex, involved in early letter-string or word-specific processing, and the cerebellum turned out to be the main forward driving nodes of the network. Synchronization within a subset of nodes formed by the left occipitotemporal, the left superior temporal, and orbitofrontal cortex was increased with the subjects' effort to comprehend the text. Our results link long-range neural synchronization and directionality with cognitive performance.

Annual Report 2007

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