students. There are many potential candidates for artistically talented programs who have little or no resources or background that would help them compete with more advantaged students in such presentations. Almost no elementary and few secondary schools offer portfolio preparation classes; if available, these classes are seldom offered before the last year of high school. Few students are able to afford the resources necessary for presentation of a competitively viable portfolio or recorded performance and opportunities for interviews, if they are offered, often demand travel and time commitments that may be beyond the resources of many students.
There has been a renewed interest in talented education in the 1980s because newer definitions of which students might qualify as talented has created new opportunities for students and teachers, new definitions of what education for talented students means, and at the same time new problems to be solved. Definition, in fact, is one of those problems. In 1972, the Marland Report stipulated new audiences for gifted or talented education. In its recommendations for legislation, most of which have become law, the term was defined as children or youth at preschool, elementary, or secondary levels who have potential for, or have demonstrated, superior abilities in intellectual, creative, academic, leadership, or the visual and performing arts activities and it also was stipulated that such students require services not ordinarily provided by the schools (Marland 1972).
Immediately after this very influential set of recommendations was published, people administering or otherwise involved in programs for education of high ability students began to revise their conceptions of gifted or talented education and question their past practices. Attempts to serve the new audiences defined by emerging state and local statutes (often in concert with and