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allow yourself no more than 15 minutes. Sources: Eisner (1967), NAEP (1977), and others who have asked subjects to draw a crowd scene of any kind.

Item 4. In the rectangle below, make a fantasy drawing from your imagination, draw whatever you like. Be as creative as you wish with the use of your pencil. Make the drawing as interesting as you can. Use a #2 pencil and allow yourself no more than 15 minutes.  Sources: Lewerenz (1927), Lark-Horovitz (1942), and others who have asked subjects to make imaginative drawings.

Scoring Criteria Scale

Each drawing completed is assessed and assigned a score through use of a Scoring Criteria Scale. In this way, subjects within groups, such as all from one classroom or grade, can be rank ordered for assignment to different learning groups or for possible assignment to a visual arts education enrichment program. The Scoring Criteria Scale is based upon properties of art works that teachers use for instruction and are derived from the writings of Harry Broudy (1972). These are: (1) sensory properties, (2) formal properties, (3) expressive properties, and (4) technical properties.

Use of a five-point scale per item in the scoring criteria also has historical precedents. The practice is common in testing in general; it has been used in relatively recent art education instrument development research by Rouse (1965), Lewis and Mussen (1969), and Silver (1983). Rouse and Lewis and Mussen used a similar scale in their research instruments and Rouse and Silver suggested grading each item response by a series of five descriptive statements, the technique used in this research.

The scale used in the Scoring Criteria Scale is sensitive to graded differences among students at the same grade or age level.   It yields scores that differentiate between poor, below average, average, above average, and

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