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A Review of the Impact of ICT on Learning - page 20 / 26

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technologies can. Social learning might be facilitated in an AmI environment since it can bring people from different backgrounds, cultures and contexts closer together. The intelligent environment would facilitate the sharing of experiences by making the necessary translations (Burgelman & Punie 2006).

ICT can help to overcome two enemies of learning: “isolation and abstraction” (Visions 2020: Chen & Arnold). In a decade or two, three complementary interfaces will shape how people learn. The familiar “world to the desk top” interface will provide access to distant experts and archives, enabling collaboration, mentoring relationships, and virtual communities-of- practice. There will also be interfaces for “ubiquitous computing,” in which portable wireless devices infuse virtual resources as we move through the real world. The early stages of

“augmented reality” interfaces are characterized by and “intelligent contexts” in learning and doing.

research on the role Additionally, there

of “smart objects” will be “Alice-in-

Wonderland”

multi-user

virtual

environments

interfaces,

in

which

participants’

avatars

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with

computer-based

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and

digital

artefacts

in

virtual

contexts.

The

initial

stages

of studies on shared virtual environments are characterized work in virtual reality (Visions 2020: Chris Dede).

by

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A key objective of learning will be to obtain and create knowledge at the right time, in the right place, in the right way, on the right device and available for everyone. There will be embedded learning processes for all ages – from the cradle to the grave - for example, intelligent toys for the first few years of life, game-based learning in pre-school, and social collaboration and filtering tools in kindergartens. Communication will be increased in communities such as high schools, where prime tools will be personalized digital libraries in project-based learning with immediate access to the Internet, and with ubiquitous student- controlled interfaces.

All these tools will be used in an appropriately adapted learning style context. In colleges and lifelong learning activities, student projects will be monitored with real time assessment monitors. Students will be evaluated on work in progress, their deliverables, their timeliness, their ability to work in teams, and their communication styles that have been monitored in the process. Virtual mentors will continuously adapt student interactions with their lifelong digital profiles, and check the effectiveness of their work against determined goals. Future tools will include super simulations and sensors, intelligent laboratory objects and project management software including voice technology to facilitate communication.

Among the tools which could be used as aids to acquiring new and complex skills, gaming could be a prime one. In the medical field, the simulation and modelling of the various physiological processes are already gaining the attention of scientists and medical experts, as these simulators can teach complex skills and provide objective measures of performance (Visions 2020: Gerald Higgins). One approach for refreshing and sustaining technical skills is to allow medics and other healthcare personnel to practice procedures in simulated environments that reproduce many of the difficulties found in real emergency situations. Another example is the on-demand, adaptive case-based simulation for medical training. Finally, the digital human or virtual human will bring medical simulation to life. Next generation learning systems will allow learners to access live and recorded lectures from multiple sources. Performance-based assignments will allow learners and small groups to demonstrate levels of expertise in tasks where they are strongly motivated to succeed. Robust simulations will make possible assignments in which learners learn and test their expertise in addressing compelling assignments and problems. Teachers and learners will be able to call

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