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A Review of the Impact of ICT on Learning - page 8 / 26





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impact of ICT-enabled education on, for instance, personal development, confidence and self- esteem.

The HELIOS Observatory on eLearning proposes the notion of “eLearning Territories” as a way to better study the evolution of the different contexts of learning experiences. This would allow us to go beyond the traditional sector-based approach to eLearning. HELIOS (2006:37) argues that, as eLearning develops further, it is no longer possible to analyse it as one single phenomenon, as was the case in the past. The use of interactive learning content for instance, cannot be confined to the classroom only, as students might want to access it from their home computers. The graph below shows different territories where eLearning can be used and thus also studied.

Source: HELIOS 2006: 37

This model could be useful for studying the impact of ICT-enabled education as it becomes increasingly difficult to isolate the specific educational use of ICT to determine its concrete impact. Educational achievements are not only shaped by the way education is organised but also by the socio-economic background of the learners and their socio-cultural environments, and by changing skills and competences required for employment, education and training, self-development and participation in society. This clarifies partly why non-formal learning, informal learning and adult learning are increasingly seen as crucial for the future of learning Punie & Cabrera 2006).

To be clear about these terms, formal learning takes place within an organised and structured context like formal education and company training, and is intentional from the learner's perspective. Normally, it also leads to formal recognition (diploma, certificate). Non-formal learning usually takes place outside the traditional systems of education and training. It can be intentional for the learner but usually does not lead to formalised certificates. Informal learning is embedded in daily life activities and is mostly non-intentional from the learner's point of view. It is often related to experiential learning or considered as accidental learning (Colardyn & Bjornavold 2004). Adult education refers to learning by adults that takes place


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