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All member economies confirm that free and fair competition is the effective means of ensuring the available of the adequate and economic maritime services.Some economies has enshrined  the principle in laws or acts.  Indonesia insists that free and fair competition should  be taken into account the different level of industry development of member economies.      

Some member economies use Laws or Rules to maintain an equitable balance of interest between the interests of shippers and shipowners.  

There is no discrimination between the citizens and businesses of APEC economies in access to cargoes or port facilities, or in access to investment or business opportunities in maritime auxiliary and inter-modal services.  

Some member economies have support measures to maintain national flag vessels, which are limited to the minimum necessary to ensure the national security or to achieve national goals of maintaining or developing their domestic shipping industry.

Policy Item 2: Liner Shipping

APEC member economies develop a set of guidelines relating to liner shipping.

Some member economies have laws or guidelines for liner shipping aimed at ensuring a free and fair competition in liner shipping. These include:


Part X of the Trade Practices Act 1974 in Australia,


Canada Transportation Act and the Shipping Conferences Exemption Act 1987 (SCEA) and as amended in 2002,


The Shipping Act 2002 in Chinese Taipei,


The Shipping Act 1987 in New Zealand.


The Shipping Act of 1984, as amended by the Ocean shipping Reform Act of 1998 (OSRA) in the U.S.

In Singapore, Block Exemption Order for Liner Shipping Agreements in the Maritime Industry was issued in July 2006 based on the recommendation from the Competition Commission of Singapore (CCS).

Policy Item 3: Government Ownership of Shipping

APEC member economies undertake:

To ensure that any international shipping operations retained under Government ownership are commercialized and operated in accordance with commercial principles.

To refrain from providing preferential access to routes, cargoes or contracts to Government-owned lines, and to adopt a timetable for the removal of such preferences where they currently exist.

To assess the benefits of privatising any shipping lines currently owned by Government.

Most of the member economies have no international shipping operations retained under Government ownership.  

Some member economies including Indonesia, New Zealand, Russian Federation and Singapore own shares partly or completely in shipping companies; however those companies do not receive any preferential treatment.

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