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productivity, and utilization concerns.
The Prevalence of Mental Illnesses and Disabilities
According to the Surgeon General, “twenty-eight to thirty percent of adults, and over twenty percent of children and adolescents, have a
addition, common rates for
some employers have discerned that mental disorders are among their employees, with Westinghouse having reported severe depression to be seventeen percent for women and nine
men, and Wells Fargo Bank employees responding to
learning that thirty a survey were
to thirty-five experiencing
symptoms of Robert Wood
Johnson Foundation, fifty-five
a study conducted percent of privately
by the insured
individuals claimed they did not of concerns regarding the cost of
seek mental health such health care. 46
“Of the ten leading causes of disability world-wide, five are psychiatric conditions: unipolar depression, alcohol use, bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.”47 The rate of effectiveness for treatment of these conditions ranges from sixty to eighty percent.48 In addition, it has been estimated that, of a physician’s standard caseload, between fifty and seventy percent of the patients suffer from “medical ailment [that] are significantly related to psychological factors.”49 This being the case, some believe that the use of medical services, and in turn the cost for such use, would be reduced if mental health care were made available to these patients.50
44. Equal Mental Health Benefits, supra note 34 (citing U.S. DEP’T OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVS., MENTAL HEALTH: A REPORT OF THE SURGEON GENERAL 408-09 (1999) [hereinafter
47. Id. (citing PHYLLIS GABRIEL & MARJO-RIITTA LIIMATAINEN, MENTAL HEALTH IN THE WORKPLACE: INTRODUCTION EXECUTIVE SUMMARIES 1, 17 (2000)).
Id. (citing NAT’L ADVISORY MENTAL HEALTH COUNCIL, HEALTH CARE REFORM FOR
AMERICANS WITH SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESSES: REPORT OF THE NAT’L ADVISORY MENTAL HEALTH COUNCIL (1993); Press Release, Judge David L. Bazelon Center for Mental Health,
Policymakers’ Fact Sheet on the Mental Health System www.bazelon.org/takeaction/legislation/campaign2000factsheet.pdf). 49. Id.
50. Id. (citing Gary R. VandenBos & Patrick H. DeLeon, The Use of Psychotherapy to Improve Physical Health, 25 PSYCHOTHERAPY 335, 336 (1988)). See also MKTG. DEP’T PRACTICE
DIRECTORATE, AM. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASS’N, MEDICAL http://www.apa.org/practice/offset3.html (last visited July 14, 2008).