20 Joshua B. Freeman, Working-Class New York: Life and Labor Since World War I (New York: The New Press, 2000), pp. 8, 143.
21 Federal Reserve Bank of New York, “Declining Manufacturing Employment in the New York-New Jersey Re- gion: 1969-99,” Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Second District Highlights, January 2001.
22 Construction dates for the Mott Haven portion of the Major Deegan come from the “New York Area Roads, Crossings, and Exits” website. The Brambach Piano Company is shown on E. Belcher Hyde, Atlas of the Borough of the Bronx, City of New York (Brooklyn: E. Belcher Hyde, 1907, updated to 1912). In 1932, the former Brambach building was labeled simply as a warehouse on G.W. Bromley & Company, Atlas of the City of New York, Borough of the Bronx, South of 172nd Street (Philadelphia: G.W. Bromley & Company, 1923, updated to 1932).
23 New York City Department of City Planning, “Port Morris/Bruckner Boulevard Rezoning” (c.2005; accessed online at www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/html/port_morris/index.shtml).
24 This was determined using the 1885 Robinson Atlas of the City of New York, which shows a handful of large brick industrial buildings—including the Estey Piano Factory, which was then under construction—existing below or near 149th Street at that time. Among these were the Edward Tausky Feather and Trimmings building at the northeast corner of 144th Street and Railroad Avenue; the Poillon & Staples varnishes factory at the northeast corner of 148th Street and Railroad Avenue; and the James & Kirtland foundry and machine shop between 149th Street and West- chester Avenue, near Brook Avenue. By checking these locations against the 2005 Sanborn Landbook: The Bronx, N.Y. (Weehawken, N.J.: First American Real Estate Solutions), it was found that these three buildings have been demolished. While the Estey Factory may not be the oldest large industrial building remaining in Mott Haven today (the Mott Iron Works building at 2401 Third Avenue appears to be older), it is certainly among the oldest well- preserved large factories still standing in the neighborhood. Information about the Mott Iron Works building and other late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century industrial buildings in Mott Haven is included in Harlem River Preservation Plan: Southern Section (Unpublished report of the Columbia University Graduate Program in Historic Preservation, 2004).
25 This section draws upon Pianos and Their Makers; Arthur Loesser, Men, Women and Pianos: A Social History (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1954); Harvey Lubar, “An Overview and History of the Bronx Piano Manufacturing Industry” (Unpublished: Collection of the Bronx County Historical Society, Bronx, N.Y.); Craig H. Roell, The Pi- ano in America, 1890-1940 (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1989); and Daniel Spillane, History of the American Piano-Forte: Its Technical Development and the Trade (Originally published 1890; re- printed New York: Da Capo Press, 1969).
John Jacob Astor was importing pianos into New York by 1786, according to Men Women and Pianos, p. 443.
Men, Women and Pianos, p. 458.
28 Men, Women and Pianos, p. 462. The Babcock frame, which was a cast-iron, one-piece frame for square pianos, was developed in Boston and patented in 1825; The Boston manufacturer Jonas Chickering patented a one-piece iron frame for grand pianos in 1843. The iron frame was crucial in permitting the use of thicker, higher-tension strings, enabling a fuller sound.
29 On the Steinway company, see LPC, Steinway Hall Designation Report (LP-2100) (New York: City of New York, 2001), prepared by Jay Shockley.
30 Men, Women and Pianos, p. 509.
31 Men, Women and Pianos, p. 540; James Parton, “The Piano in the United States,” Atlantic Monthly, July 1867, p. 82, cited in The Piano in America, p. 23.