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48

“An Overview and History of the Bronx Piano Manufacturing Industry,” p. 5.

49

“Advantages of the Great North Side”; “A Manufacturing Centre.”

50

Louis F. Haffen, “Subway Needed on East Side,” New York Times, May 17, 1908, p. B2.

51

“Piano Factories Crowd the Bronx.”

52 “Scores of High Class Apartments Under Construction in Bronx Borough,” New York Times, August 14, 1910, p. X6.

53 “Seek Bronx Sites: Borough Gaining in Popularity, Particularly with Makers of Pianos,” New York Times, June 22, 1913, p. XX8.

54

On this point, see The Piano in America, pp. 81-85.

55 “An Overview and History of the Bronx Piano Manufacturing Industry,” pp. 30, 37; “Piano Workers May Strike,” New York Times, August 29, 1919, p. 2.

56 Phillips Classified Directory of Greater New York and Surrounding Territory (New York: Phillips Directories, 1919).

57

“An Overview and History of the Bronx Piano Manufacturing Industry,” p. 4.

58 The Behning, Janssen, and Mathushek companies, for example, had earlier had factories across the Harlem River from Mott Haven, in a largely industrial area between 128th and 130th Streets, east of Lexington Avenue. In 1887, Behning was located at 157 East 128th Street, and Mathushek was at 216 East 128th Street; Janssen, which would move to Brown Place and 132nd Street in the Bronx in 1910, was located at 168 East 129th Street in 1903, according to the 1887 Trow City Directory Company’s Business Directory of New York City (New York: Trow City Directory Company) and the 1903 Trow’s Business Directory of Greater New York (New York: Trow Directory, Printing & Bookbinding Company). The Laffargue piano company, which, by 1903, had its factory in the Bronx at 134th Street and Cypress Avenue, had previously been located on 124th Street between Fourth (now Park) and Lexington Ave- nues. Laffargue was at 107 East 124th Street in 1900, according to the 1900 Trow Business Directory of Manhattan and the Bronx (New York: Trow Directory, Printing & Bookbinding Company).

59 The firms formerly located east of Third Avenue included the Francis Connor, Frederick, Gabler, James & Holm- strom, Haines Brothers, and Krakauer companies. Connor was located at 239 East 41st Street in 1887; Frederick was at 508 First Avenue, between 29th and 30th Streets, in 1903; Gabler had its factory at 214 East 22nd Street, between Second and Third Avenues, in 1887; James & Holmstrom had a factory at 233 East 21st Street, between Second and Third Avenues, in 1887; Haines Brothers was at 362 Second Avenue, at the corner of 21st Street, in 1887; and Kra- kauer had its factory at 729 First Avenue between 41st and 42nd Streets in 1887. Also in 1887, Newby & Evans was located at 528 West 43rd Street, Pease was at 320 West 43rd Street, Schubert was at 423 Eleventh Avenue, and Steck’s factory was at 512 West 34th Street. See the 1887 Trow City Directory Company’s Business Directory of New York City; the 1903 Trow’s Business Directory of Greater New York; and “Piano Workers May Strike.”

60 Among these, apparently, were the Bogart, Cambridge, Ebe, Faber, Kirchhoff, and Rudolf companies. Bogart, established in 1898, was at 511 East 137th Street by 1900; Cambridge, established in 1909, was at 89 Southern Boulevard by 1912; Ebe, established in 1916, was at 168 Southern Boulevard by 1916; Faber, established in 1912, was at 351 Rider Avenue by 1915; Kirchhoff, established in 1901, was at 486 East 139th Street by 1903; Rudolf, established in 1903, was at 460 East 144th Street by 1904. See the 1900 Trow Business Directory of Manhattan and the Bronx; the 1903 Trow’s Business Directory of Greater New York; the 1904 Trow’s Business Directory of Greater New York (New York: Trow Directory, Printing & Bookbinding Company); and the 1912, 1915, and 1916

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