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editions of the Phillips Business Directory of New York City (New York: John F. White). Companies’ dates of founding are from “An Overview and History of the Bronx Piano Manufacturing Industry.”

61 Phillips Classified Directory of New York and Surrounding Territory (New York: John F. White, 1925). Between 1914 and 1925, the number of piano manufacturers in the United States shrank from 255 to 142; the number of em- ployees fell from 24,000 to 20,000. By 1933, the industry was at its low point: only 36 manufacturers, employing 2,700 people, remained in the United States.

62 The “piano capital” quote is from “Bronx Piano Factories.” The two piano factories in the Annexed District that are known to have predated the Estey Factory—Dunham, at the northeast corner of 155th Street and Morris Avenue, and Arion/Wheelock, on the north side of 149th Street between Brook and St. Ann’s Avenues—have both been de- molished.

63 This section draws upon Trow’s New York City Directory for the years 1869, 1870, 1873, 1874, 1878, 1879, 1880 through 1895, 1897, 1898, 1900, 1906, 1910, and 1918. Published in New York by John F. Trow in 1869, the direc- tory was published by the Trow City Directory Company by 1874, by the Trow Directory, Printing & Bookbinding Company by 1900, and by R.L. Polk & Company by 1918. The directory’s title changed to Trow’s General Direc- tory of the Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx, City of New York in 1899. By 1918, it was called R.L. Polk & Company’s Trow’s New York City Directory, Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx. This section also draws upon the 1877 Goulding’s New York City Directory (New York: L.G. Goulding); Upington’s General Directory of Brooklyn and the Brooklyn City Directory (Brooklyn: Brooklyn Directory Company) for 1903, 1905, 1907, 1909, 1912, and 1913; United States Census records for 1870, 1880, 1900, and 1910; New York City Death Index (accessed online at the New York Public Library); Dennis Steadman Francis, Architects in Practice in New York City, 1840-1900 (New York, 1979), p. 58; James Ward, Architects in Practice in New York City, 1900-1940 (New York, 1989), p. 58; LPC Architects’ Files; and the Architects’ Appendices for the following LPC Designation Reports, all published in New York by the City of New York: Greenwich Village Historic District (LP-0489) (1969); Park Slope Historic District (LP-0709) (1973); Upper East Side Historic District (LP-1051) (1981); Upper West Side/Central Park West His- toric District (LP-1647) (1990); Tribeca East Historic District (LP-1711) (1992); Expanded Carnegie Hill Historic District (LP-1834) (1993); Hamilton Heights/Sugar Hill Historic District (LP-2064) (2000); and Hamilton Heights/Sugar Hill Northwest Historic District (LP-2105) (2002).

64 Ogden was shown in the 1870 and 1880 censuses as having been born in New York State. A search of the familysearch.org website finds an Alfred B. Ogden born in 1834 in Jerusalem Township, Yates County, New York, who may have been the same person.

65 On Hahnemann Hospital, see Robert A.M. Stern, Thomas Mellins, and David Fishman, New York 1880: Architec- ture and Urbanism in the Gilded Age (New York: Monacelli Press, 1999), pp. 241, 266; and King’s Handbook of New York City (Boston: Moses King, 1892), p. 435.

66 Ogden’s profession was listed in the 1870 Census as “planing mills,” and in an 1873 directory, as “sawmills”; in other years between 1869 and 1877, city directories listed Ogden’s profession simply as “moldings,” and showed an apparent partnership in the moldings concern of Ogden & Carpenter, which was located at 409 East 53rd Street. Even after becoming a full-time architect, Ogden kept his office at that location, before moving to 1031 Madison Avenue in 1887.

67 Samuel’s birth date is difficult to determine. In the 1880 census, he is listed as being 20 years old; the 1900 cen- sus gives his birth date as August of 1866.

By the end of 1878, the Third Avenue Elevated connected South Ferry with East 129th Street, and the Second Avenue El connected Chatham Square with East 129th Street. By 1881, the Ninth Avenue El had been extended from Lower Manhattan to 155th Street, according to “Elevated Railways,” The Encyclopedia of New York City, pp. 368-369. During these years, the Ogdens’ projects were frequently mentioned in the “Out Among the Builders” column of Real Estate Record and Builders’ Guide; a survey of these columns from 1884 to 1886 found reports of 68

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