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102 “Frederick Loeser & Co.” (Advertisement) New York Times, October 13, 1912, p. X11. It appears, as late as 1917, that Loeser’s was the only New York City retail outlet for Estey pianos other than the company’s showrooms. A 1917 Estey Piano advertisement referred to “our show rooms at 12 West 45th Street, New York City, and the dis- play … at Frederick Loeser & Company’s store in Brooklyn.” See “Estey Piano Sale” (Advertisement).

103 “Pianomakers Call a Strike for To-Day,” New York Times, September 23, 1912, p. 8; “4,000 Pianomakers go out on Strike,” New York Times, September 24, 1912, p. 8.

104 Simpson remained involved, to some extent, with the company after Gittins took over; he is listed as the Estey Piano Factory’s owner in New York City Alteration Docket No. 1919-204 from 1919.

105 “Five Final Days” (Advertisement), New York Times, November 25, 1917, p. X2. Both this ad and the “Estey Piano Sale” advertisement feature illustrations of the Estey Factory as it appeared at that time.

106 The Poughkeepsie plant had opened in 1912. The orchestrion, which may be considered a precursor to the juke- box, consisted of a large cabinet typically containing pipes and percussion instruments; these automatically operated machines played music recorded on rolls, and were often installed in saloons, restaurants, ice-cream shops, dance halls, and rinks; they were also installed within merry-go-rounds. Citing M. Welte & Sons’ “alien ownership,” the Federal Government seized the company during World War I; it was then auctioned to an investment group, which sold it to Gittins. Whether or not the seizure of Welte and other firms during the war was justified by security con- cerns is addressed in The Welte Mignon; Edwin Welte, who was president of the company until it was taken by the government, later lamented having to return to Germany, writing of “the fine factory building I built in Poughkeep- sie …. I thought Poughkeepsie would be my final home” (The Welte Mignon, p. 48).

107 New York City Alteration Docket No. 1919-204; this work was apparently completed by 1921, according to G.W. Bromley & Company, Atlas of the Borough of the Bronx (Philadelphia: The Company, 1921).

108 1921 Bromley Atlas of the Borough of the Bronx. A letter dated January 5, 1922 in the New York City Depart- ment of Buildings file associated with current Block 2309, Lot 1 features letterhead showing the Welte-Mignon complex as it appeared at that time. The two-story building has since been substantially altered.

109 “Estey Pianos” (Advertisement), Chicago Daily Tribune, February 15, 1948, p. NW6; “Macy’s Half-Million Dollar Sale” (Advertisement), New York Times, December 3, 1961, p. 39; “Macy’s Great Sale of Console Pianos by Estey and Hardman & Peck” (Advertisement), February 11, 1962, p. 70; “Macy’s Great Piano Sale” (Advertise- ment), February 17, 1965, p. 33.


“U.S. Aid for Plastic Piano Set, to Tune of $944,000,” Wall Street Journal, December 14, 1972, p. 42.

111 “Loft Space Leased,” New York Times, August 4, 1932, p. 35; “Leasing Here Shows Business Expansion,” New York Times, February 9, 1937, p. 41.


New York City Application for Drop Curbs, No. 1939-73.

113 “Window Sash Firm Buys Bronx Plant,” New York Times, February 6, 1940, p. 41. The S.H. Pomeroy Company appears on the same block as Estey Piano on G.W. Bromley & Company, Atlas of the City of New York, Borough of the Bronx (Philadelphia: The Company, 1923).


New York City Application for Minor Structures, Minor Alterations, and Repairs No. 1940-232.


New York City Application for Minor Structures, Minor Alterations, and Repairs No. 1945-538.

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